Monday, September 12, 2011

Phytochemicals: 12 health Benefits of Saponins

Saponins are a group of phytochemical compounds presented in various plant species, including Phytosterols found abundantly in almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds,etc.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

1. Obesity
According to the study of "Lipid metabolic effect of Korean red ginseng extract in mice fed on a high-fat diet." by Song YB, An YR, Kim SJ, Park HW, Jung JW, Kyung JS, Hwang SY, Kim YS. (Source from Korea Ginseng Corporation Ginseng Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea., Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that KRGE (Ginseng saponin and ginsenosides exert) reduces the levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum triglycerides, and atherogenic indices. Levels of leptin, adiponectin and insulin, which regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, were impaired profoundly by HFD. However, KRGE treatment brought these levels back to normal. KRGE was found to down-regulate genes associated with lipid metabolism or cholesterol metabolism all of which were up-regulated by HFD and suggested that KRGE regulated the expression of genes associated with abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism, were shown to be modulated by KRGE. These results show that KRGE is effective in preventing obesity.

2. Colon cancer
In a study of " Effect of soy saponin on the growth of human colon cancer cells." by Tsai CY, Chen YH, Chien YW, Huang WH, Lin SH. (Source from School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan, China.) posted in PubMed, human colon cancer cells were treated with 150, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm of soy saponin to determine the effect on cell growth, cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and protein kinase C (PKC) activities, and P53 protein, c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression, researchers found that Soy saponin may be effective in preventing colon cancer by affecting cell morphology, cell proliferation enzymes, and cell growth.

3. Cancers
According to the study of "Saponins as anticarcinogens" by Rao AV, Sung MK. (Source from Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that showed that soybean saponins at the concentration of 150-600 ppm had a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect on human carcinoma cells (HCT-15). Viability was also significantly reduced. Soybean saponins did not increase cell membrane permeability in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas gypsophilla saponin, a nondietary saponin, increased permeability with increasing concentrations. Electron microscopy indicated that soybean and gysophilla saponins alter cell morphology and interact with the cell membrane in different ways.

4. Antioxidants
According to the study of "Protective effect of soybean saponins and major antioxidants against aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity and DNA-adduct formation." by Jun HS, Kim SE, Sung MK. (Source from Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Womens' University, Seoul, Korea.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Soybean saponins inhibited AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation by 50.1% at a concentration of 30 microg/ml, whereas L-ascorbic acid and BHT reduced adduct formation by 38.4% and 32.6%, respectively, at the same concentrations. These results indicate that soybean saponins possess not only a significant antimutagenic activity but a strong inhibitory action against carcinogen-induced DNA damages. Soybean saponins possibly block the initiation stage of carcinogenesis, and further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of action.

5. Prostate Cancer
In a study of " Antiproliferation Effect and Apoptosis Mechanism of Prostate Cancer Cell PC-3 by Flavonoids and Saponins Prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum" by Cheng TC, Lu JF, Wang JS, Lin LJ, Kuo HI, Chen BH., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Both flavonoid and saponin fractions were isolated by a column chromatographic method with cosmosil 75C¬18-OPN as adsorbent and elution solvents of ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) for the former and 100% ethanol for the latter, followed by HPLC-MS-MS analysis. Based on MTT assay, the saponin and flavonoid fraction were comparably effective in inhibiting growth of PC-3 cells, with the IC50 being 39.3 and 33.3 g/mL, respectively.

6. Hepatoma cells
According to the "Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell." from Tsai YC, Lin CL, Chen BH. (Source from Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei, Taiwan.Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that both (isolate flavonoids and saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum) fractions were more effective against Hep3B cells than the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3), with the cell cycle being arrested at G0/G1 phase for all the treatments.

7. Antifungal activity
In a study of "Two antifungal active triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Lathyrus plants." by
Khan NA. (Source from a Department of Postgraduate and Research in Chemistry , R. D. University of Jabalpur , Jabalpur - 482001 , M.P. , India.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that the isolated saponins were tested for their antifungal activity. Compound 1 showed maximum inhibition against Colletotrichum dematium (77.8%), whereas compound 2 showed maximum inhibition against Alternaria alternata (53.9%).

8. Anti-inflammatory property
According to the study of " Anti-inflammatory Triterpenoid Saponins from the Stem Bark of Kalopanax pictus" by Quang TH, Ngan NT, Minh CV, Kiem PV, Nhiem NX, Tai BH, Thao NP, Tung NH, Song SB, Kim YH. (Source from College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University , Daejeon 305-764, Korea) posted in PubMed, researchers found that 10 known compounds (6-15), were isolated from the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus. Compounds 1-5 and 7-14 inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.6to 16.4 μM. Furthermore, the transcriptional inhibitory function of these compounds was confirmed on the basis of decreases in COX-2 and iNOS gene expression in HepG2 cells. The structure-activity relationship of the compounds with respect to anti-inflammatory activity is also discussed.

9. Gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
In a study of "Astragalus saponins modulate cell invasiveness and angiogenesis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells" by Auyeung KK, Woo PK, Law PC, Ko JK. (Source from Center for Cancer and Inflammation Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China, Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that AST (Astragalus saponins) derived from the medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus could modulate the invasiveness and angiogenesis of AGS cells besides its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative activities. These findings also suggest that AST has the potential to be further developed into an effective chemotherapeutic agent in treating advanced and metastatic gastric cancers.

10. Type II diabetes
According to the study of " Platyconic acid, a saponin from Platycodi radix, improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo" by Kwon DY, Kim YS, Ryu SY, Choi YH, Cha MR, Yang HJ, Park S. (Source from Food Functional Research Division, Korean Food Research Institutes, Sungnam, Korea), posted in PubMed, researchers found that PA increased glycogen accumulation and decreased triacylglycerol storage in liver, which was associated with enhanced hepatic insulin signaling, while PA potentiated the expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in adipose tissue, and improved insulin signaling and increased GLUT4 translocation into the membranes and suggested that PA improves glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice, partly by enhancing hepatic and adipocyte insulin sensitivity, possibly by activating PPAR-γ.

11. Immune responses
In a study of "Enhancement of humoral immune responses to inactivated Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccines by oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins in chickens" by Zhai L, Li Y, Wang W, Hu S. (Source from Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China), posted in PubMed, researchers found that GSLS significantly increased the antibody level against ND in the serum of chickens. In experiment 2, the same regimen of GSLS was administered to chickens inoculated with inactivated AI vaccines, and an enhanced serum antibody response to AI vaccination was also observed. Considering the safety of GSLS, because no adverse effect was found throughout the experiments, GSLS may be a promising oral adjuvant to improve immunization in poultry.

12. Testosterone 5α-reductase
According to the study of "Inhibitory activities of Puerariae Flos against testosterone 5α-reductase and its hair growth promotion activities" by Murata K, Noguchi K, Kondo M, Onishi M, Watanabe N, Okamura K, Matsuda H. (Source from Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka, 577-8502, Japan), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The 50% ethanolic extract of Puerariae Flos (PF-ext) showed inhibitory activity of 60.2% at 500 μg/ml against testosterone 5α-reductase. Interestingly, it was more potent than that of Puerariae Radix (roots of Pueraria lobata). PF-ext also showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using a hair growth assay in testosterone-sensitive male C57Black/6NCrSlc strain mice and saponins, including soyasaponin I and kaikasaponin III, to be active components in PF-ext. In addition, hair growth promotion activity in C3H/He mice at 2 mg/mouse/day of the topical administration of PF-ext was demonstrated.

13. Etc.

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Phytochemicals: 10 Health Benefits of Phytosterols (Lipids)

Lipids, are a group of fat soluble phytochemicals included Phytosterols, Tocopherols and Omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids found abundantly in varieties of plant, containing,fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

Phytosterols are a subgroup of lipids, the steroid compounds similar to cholesterol in plant, Researchers have found more than 200 of them.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

1. Cholesterol
Phytosterols are best best known to have a property in lowering the blood cholesterol, according to the study of " Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to plant sterols and plant stanols and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 549, 550, 567, 713, 1234, 1235, 1466, 1634, 1984, 2909, 3140), and maintenance of normal prostate size and normal urination (ID 714, 1467, 1635) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", posted in EFSA Journak, researchers filed in summary that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of plant sterols and plant stanols and the reduction of blood cholesterol concentrations.

2. Coronary heart disease
In most case, if a substance have a good effect in lowering blood cholesterol concentration, it may also promote heart health. In a study of " Plant Sterols and Blood Cholesterol Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to plant sterols and lower/reduced blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061" from Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
Adopted on 11 July 2008, researchers indicated that Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) blood cholesterol is one recognised risk factor for
coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is an important cause of mortality and morbidity.
Lowering LDL-cholesterol by dietary intervention has been shown to reduce the risk of
coronary heart disease. The Panel considers that the claimed effect of lowering LDLcholesterol
is beneficial to human health.

3. Cancers
In a study of " Anticancer effects of phytosterols" by Woyengo TA, Ramprasath VR, Jones PJ. (Source from Department of Animal Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T6C5, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researcher found in abstract that Phytosterol consumption may also increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thereby reduce oxidative stress. In addition to altering cell-membrane structure and function, phytosterols probably promote apoptosis by lowering blood cholesterol levels. Moreover, consumption of phytosterols by healthy humans at the recommended level of 2 g per day does not cause any major health risks. In summary, mounting evidence supports a role for phytosterols in protecting against cancer development. Hence, phytosterols could be incorporated in diet not only to lower the cardiovascular disease risk, but also to potentially prevent cancer development.

4. Cytotoxic and Antioxidant effects
Phytoecdysteroids are phytochemicals including triterpene saponins, phytosterols, and phytoecdysteroid. In a study of "Phytoecdysteroids of Silene guntensis and their in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity" by Mamadalieva NZ, El-Readi MZ, Janibekov AA, Tahrani A, Wink M. (Source from Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances AS RUz, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), posted in PubMed, researchers filed in abstract that
4.1. Cytotoxic effects
The chloroform extract showed potent cytotoxic effects [IC50 values (26.58 +/- 1.88) microg/mL, (20.99 +/- 1.64) microg/mL, and (18.89 +/- 2.36) microg/mL, respectively].
4.2. Antioxidant effect
The new compound 1 was mildly cytotoxic compared to extracts [(127.97 +/- 11.34), (106.76 +/- 7.81), and (203.10 +/- 19.56) microg/mL, respectively]. Water and n-butanol extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities [IC50 values of (68.90 +/- 6.45) microg/mL and (69.12 +/- 5.85) microg/mL, respectively].

6. Dietary recommendations
According to the abstract of the study of " The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile." [Article in English, French] by Huang J, Frohlich J, Ignaszewski AP. (Source from Healthy Heart Program, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180-1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that The consumption of nuts, a diet high in carbohydrates and protein, green tea, and red wine, as well as the supplementation with policosanol and red yeast rice extract, can be considered for improvement of the lipid profile, while the supplements of guggulipid, garlic, chromium, vitamin C, magnesium-pyridoxal-phosphate-glutamate, tocotrienols, and absorbitol cannot be recommended.

7. Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis
According to the study of " 24-Epibrassinolide, a Phytosterol from the Brassinosteroid Family, Protects Dopaminergic Cells against MPP-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis" by Carange J, Longpré F, Daoust B, Martinoli MG. (Source from Department of Biochemistry, Neurosciences Research Group, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada G9A 5H7), posted in PubMed, researchers found in abstract that
7.1. Oxidative Stress
Our results demonstrate that 24-Epi reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and modulates superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities.
7.2. Apoptosis
Finally, we determined that the antioxidative properties of 24-Epi lead to the inhibition of MPP(+)-induced apoptosis by reducing DNA fragmentation as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and cleaved caspase-3. This is the first time that the potent antioxidant and neuroprotective role of 24-Epi has been shown in a mammalian neuronal cell line.

9. Antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities
According to the abstract from the study of " Preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities of successive extracts of Crossandra infundibuliformis" by
Madhumitha G, Saral AM. (Source from Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that preliminary screening on the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, tannins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, oils and fats were carried out by phytochemical analysis and found that
9.1. Antibacterial activity
The successive extracts have an array of chemical constituents and the MIC values of antibacterial activity ranges from 0.007 8 to 0.015 0 μg/mL.
9.2. Antifungal and anticandidal activities
In case of antifungal and anticandidal activities the MIC values were between 0.125 and 0.250 μg/mL.

11. Etc.

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Phytochemicals: Hydroxycinnamic Acids

LinkHydroxycinnamic Acids, are group of Flavonoids, including Caffeic acid found in burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple; Chlorogenic acid found in echinacea, Linkstrawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries; Cinnamic acid found in aloe; Coumarin found in citrus fruits, maize, etc.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

1. Antioxidant
According to the study of " [Preparation and anti-oxidant activity of cinnamic acid derivatives-g-CTS]" [Article in Chinese] by Wu X, Hou Y, Li J, Li H. (Source from School of Pharmacy, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450008, China), posted in PubMed, researchers found that the antioxidation activities of all products were better than the raw material and suggested that Cinnamic acid derivatives-g-CTS is suitable as the O2-* -capture agent.

2. Lung adenocarcinoma cells
In a study of "A comparative study on the effectiveness of cis- and trans-form of cinnamic acid treatments for inhibiting invasive activity of human lung adenocarcinoma cells" by Yen GC, Chen YL, Sun FM, Chiang YL, Lu SH, Weng CJ. (Source from Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Rd, Taichung 40227, Taiwan), posted in PubMed, researchers found that that the treatment of c-CA and t-CA dose-dependently reduced the PMA-induced MMP-2 and -9 activities but without significant effect on the adhesive activity of cells. The PMA-induced motility was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by a 24-h treatment with c-CA and t-CA. The invasive ability was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 68% and 65%, respectively, relative to PMA treatment alone after treatment of PMA-treated A549 cells with either 50μM c-CA or 100μM t-CA for 24h and suggested that both of the c-CA and t-CA are inhibitors for invasion of A549 cells and the activity of c-CA seems to be higher than t-CA.

3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
In a study of "Transformation of cinnamic acid from trans- to cis-form raises a notable bactericidal and synergistic activity against multiple-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis." by Chen YL, Huang ST, Sun FM, Chiang YL, Chiang CJ, Tsai CM, Weng CJ. (Source from Graduate Institute of Applied Science of Living, Tainan University of Technology, 529 Zhongzheng Rd., Yongkang District, Tainan City 71002, Taiwan), posted in PubMed, researchers found in Abstract that the synergistic effects of c-CA (Cinnamic acid) and t-CA with two first-line anti-TB antibiotics, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), were also determined. Although both of c-CA and t-CA decreased the viability of MDR-TB bacilli in a dose-dependent manner, the antituberculosis activity of c-CA was approximately 120-fold of t-CA. Furthermore, the c-CA exhibited higher synergistic effect with INH or RIF against tuberculosis than t-CA. The micrographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) display that c-CA caused an injury on the out-layer of MDR-TB bacilli. The c-CA might be a potential anti-mycobacterial or synergistic agent that can be developed to against tuberculosis.

4. Anti-inflammatory
According to the study of "Cytotoxicity of active ingredients extracted from plants of the Brazilian "Cerrado" by Soares VC, Bonacorsi C, Andrela AL, Bortoloti LV, de Campos SC, Fagundes FH, Piovani M, Cotrim CA, Vilegas W, Toyama MH. (Source from Institute of Biology, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-862, Brazil, posted in PubMed, reseachers concluded that the cinnamic acid, sacandenin and palustric acid showed highest toxicity with a 50% reduction in cell viability for the dose of 50 microg/microL. Cytotoxic screening results are useful to estimate the best concentrations of those compounds with potential anti-inflammatory without their cause cell death.

5. Diabetes
In a study of "Phenylethyl cinnamides as potential alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Solanum melongena" by Liu X, Luo J, Kong L. (Source from Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China), posted in PubMed, researcher found in abstract that six phenolic compounds (1-6) from the 70% EtOH extract of the roots of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae). Of these, three phenylethyl cinnamides, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (1), N-trans-p-coumaroyl tyramine (2) and N-cis-p-coumaroyl tyramine (3) possessed inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase with IC50 values of 500.6, 5.3 and 46.3 microM, respectively.

6. Antimalarial activity
In a study of "Antimalarial drug interactions of compounds isolated from Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and their synergism with artemether, against the multidrug-resistant W2mef Plasmodium falciparum strain" by Zofou D, Tene M, Tane P, Titanji VP. (Source from Biotechnology Unit, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, South West Region, Cameroon,, posted in PubMed, researchers in abstract indicated that all the three compounds showed synergistic effects with artemether, unlike the slight antagonistic interactions of atranorin and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid in combination with quinine. K. africana compounds are therefore likely to serve as leads in the development of new partner drugs in artemether-based combination therapy.

7. Antifungal activity
According to the study of "Size dependency of PLGA-nanoparticle uptake and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus" by Patel NR, Damann K, Leonardi C, Sabliov CM. (Source from Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers found that no differences in (Itraconazole and coumarin-6 loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid-nanoparticles (PLGA-ITZ- and PLGA-C6-NPs)) antifungal activity were observed at higher ITZ concentrations. Conclusion: The PLGA-ITZ-NP system can increase bioavailability of ITZ by improving its aqueous dispersibility and efficiently delivering ITZ to fungal cells via endocytosis.

8. Breast cancer
According to the study of " Enhanced cellular uptake of folic acid-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with vincristine sulfate in human breast cancer" by Chen J, Li S, Shen Q, He H, Zhang Y. (Source from School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that The NPs exhibited a biphasic drug release with a moderate initial burst followed by a sustained release profile. Internalization of the NPs labeled with coumarin- 6 by MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) human breast cancer cells was quantitatively measured by microplate reader, and qualitatively analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

9. Mood and cognition
In a study of "Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study" by Cropley V, Croft R, Silber B, Neale C, Scholey A, Stough C, Schmitt J. (Source from Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Compared with the decaffeinated coffee with regular chlorogenic acid and placebo, caffeinated coffee showed a robust positive effect on higher-level mood and attention processes. To a lesser extent, the decaffeinated coffee high in chlorogenic acid also improved some mood and behavioral measures, relative to regular decaffeinated coffee.

10. Allergy-preventive effects
In a study of "Allergy-preventive effects of chlorogenic acid and iridoid derivatives from flower buds of Lonicera japonica" by Oku H, Ogawa Y, Iwaoka E, Ishiguro K. (Source from School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Japan), posted in PubMed, researchers found in abstract that the flower buds of L. japonica and compounds isolated from them have allergy-preventive properties. The structure-activity relationship of iridoid derivatives, morroniside (5), geniposide (6), asperuloside (7), aucubin (8) and catalpol (9), were also tested using the same bioassay method. Compounds 2-5 and 9 having the sp(3) atom at C-8 showed an allergy-preventive effect, while compounds 6, 7 and 8 having a double bond at C-7, C-8 did not and suggested that non-caffeine compounds in coffee such as the chlorogenic acids may be capable of exerting some acute behavioral effects, thus warranting further investigation.

11. Gastrointestinal hormone secretion
According to the abstract of the study of "Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine" by
Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. (Source from Centre for Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion decreased throughout the experimental period (P < 0.005), and glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion increased 0-120 min postprandially (P < 0.01) after decaffeinated coffee consumption compared with the control. Glucose and insulin profiles were consistent with the known metabolic effects of caffeine. However, the gastrointestinal hormone profiles were consistent with delayed intestinal glucose absorption and suggested that chlorogenic acid might have an antagonistic effect on glucose transport. Therefore, a novel function of some dietary phenols in humans may be to attenuate intestinal glucose absorption rates and shift the site of glucose absorption to more distal parts of the intestine.

12. Weight control
In a study of "Coffee, diabetes, and weight control" by Greenberg JA, Boozer CN, Geliebter A. (Source from Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, New York, NY 11210, USA), posted in PunMed, researchers indicated that A second such study found that both caffeine and coffee intakes were modestly and inversely associated with weight gain. It is possible that caffeine and other constituents of coffee, such as chlorogenic acid and quinides, are involved in causing weight loss.

13. Etc.

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Phytochemicals: 13 Health Benefits of Quercetin

Quercetin is a member of flavonoids, found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains. It is also one of antioxidants with property of protecting our body in fighting against forming of free radicals cause of mutation of cells`DNA.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

Renal function
In a study of ` Quercetin regulates organic ion transporter and uromodulin expression and improves renal function in hyperuricemic mice.` by Hu QH, Zhang X, Wang X, Jiao RQ, Kong LD. (Source from State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, People's Republic of China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Quercetin significantly restored oxonate-induced abnormalities of these biochemical indexes compared with normal vehicle group. Furthermore, it remarkably prevented expression changes of renal organic ion transporters and UMOD, and UMOD level alteration in hyperuricemic mice and suggested that that quercetin has the uricosuric and nephroprotective actions mediated by regulating the expression levels of renal organic ion transporters and UMOD.

2. Oxidative Stress
According to the study of `The protective effect of the flavonoids on food-mutagen-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from colon cancer patients.`by Kurzawa-Zegota M, Najafzadeh M, Baumgartner A, Anderson D. (Source from Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology Group, Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that flavonoids (quercetin (Q) and rutin (R)) reduced oxidative stress caused by food mutagens in vitro in lymphocytes of healthy individuals and colon cancer patients. Thus, dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich vegetables and fruits may prove very effective in protecting against oxidative stress.

3. Anti-cytogenotoxic effects
In a study of `Assessment of anti-cytogenotoxic effects of quercetin in animals treated with topotecan.`by Bakheet SA. (Source from Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of topotecan-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the bone marrow cells of mice that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. Based on the data presented, strategies can be developed to decrease the topotecan-induced bone marrow suppression and secondary malignancy in cancer patients and medical personnel exposing to topotecan.

4. Leukemias
According to the study of `Quercetin-induced apoptosis involves increased hTERT enzyme activity of leukemic cells.`by Avci CB, Yilmaz S, Dogan ZO, Saydam G, Dodurga Y, Ekiz HA, Kartal M, Sahin F, Baran Y, Gunduz C. (Source from School of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The effects of quercetin on telomerase enzyme activity were shown by hTERT Quantification Kit. Our results demonstrated that quercetin has antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute promyelocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. We also showed for the first time by this study that quercetin suppresses the activity of telomerase in ALL and CML cells. The results of this study show the importance of quercetin for its therapeutic potential in treatment of leukemias.

5. Free radical scavenger
In a study of `Dietary chromones as antioxidant agents-the structural variable.`by Dias MM, Machado NF, Marques MP. (Source from Research Unit "Molecular Physical Chemistry", University of Coimbra, Portugal.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that from the eighteen tested compounds, three-fisetin, luteolin and quercetin-are shown to act as effective antiradicals. Consistent structure-activity relationships (SARs) were established regarding the antioxidant role of this type of chromone-based system.

6. Adjuvant cancer therapy
In a study of `The flavonoid quercetin in disease prevention and therapy: Facts and fancies.`by
Russo M, Spagnuolo C, Tedesco I, Bilotto S, Russo GL. (Source from Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, 83100 Avellino, Italy.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The ameliorating effect of quercetin administration can be extended to other chronic inflammatory disorders but only if supplementation occurs in patients. Quercetin can be considered the prototype of a naturally-occurring chemopreventive agent because of its key roles in triggering the "hallmarks of cancer". However, several critical points must be taken into account when considering the potential therapeutic use of this molecule: (1) pharmacological versus nutraceutical doses applied, (2) specificity of its mechanism of action compared to other phytochemicals, and (3) identification of "direct" cellular targets. The design of specific clinical trials is extremely warranted to depict possible applications of quercetin in adjuvant cancer therapy.

7. Anti-Inflammatory
According to the study of `Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Quercetin 7-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside from the Leaves of Brasenia schreberi.`by Legault J, Perron T, Mshvildadze V, Girard-Lalancette K, Perron S, Laprise C, Sirois P, Pichette A. (Source from Laboratory for Analysis and Separation of Plant Species (LASEVE), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi , Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that some flavonoids have been reported to possess beneficial effects in cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with overproduction of nitric oxide. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside possesses anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and release of nitric oxide by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside also inhibited overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor.

8. Cholesterol atherosclerosis
In a study of `Correction of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system by bioflavonoids during modeling of rabbit cholesterol atherosclerosis.`[Article in Ukrainian], [No authors listed], posted in PubMed, researchers found that we showed that under hypercholesterolemia, the concentration of malone dialdehyde in myocardial tissue in rabbits is significantly increased, while administration of bioflavonoids (quercetin, corvitin) decreased the concentration of malone dialdehyde by 38.3%. Furthermore, corvitin caused activating effects on antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in cardiac tissue. Our data suggest that bioflavonoids are able to suppress lipid peroxidation and prevent the decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity in rabbits with cholesterol-rich diet induced atherosclerosis.

9. Anti-tumour adjuvant agent
According to the study of ` Radiofrequency ablation combined with liposomal quercetin to increase tumour destruction by modulation of heat shock protein production in a small animal model.`by Yang W, Ahmed M, Tasawwar B, Levchenko T, Sawant RR, Collins M, Signoretti S, Torchilin V, Goldberg SN. (Source from Minimally Invasive Tumor Therapies Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA , USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Suppression of HSP production using adjuvant liposomal quercetin can increase apoptosis and improve RF ablation-induced tumour destruction. Further increases in tumour coagulation can be seen including an additional anti-tumour adjuvant agent such as liposomal doxorubicin.

10. Anticancer activity
In the study of `Antiproliferative activity and standardization of Tecomella undulata bark extract on K562 cells.`by Ravi A, Mallika A, Sama V, Begum AS, Khan RS, Reddy BM. (Source from G. Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad-500 028, AP, India.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that The investigation clearly demonstrated the potential antitumor effect of CTUB, thereby validating the traditional claim. Quercetin, known to have anticancer activity is being reported and quantified for the first time from the bark of Tecomella undulata.

11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities
According to the study of `Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves, twigs and stem bark of Scutia buxifolia Reissek.`by Boligon AA, Janovik V, Frohlich JK, Spader TB, Forbrig Froeder AL, Alves SH, Athayde ML. (Source from a Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Industrial Pharmacy , Federal University of Santa Maria , Build 26, room 1115 , Santa Maria , CEP 97105-900 , Brazil.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that quercitrin, isoquercitrin and rutin were identified by HPLC and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activities observed. This study reports for the first time the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of S. buxifolia leaves, twigs and stem bark.

12. Visceral Adipose Tissue
According to the study of `Influence of Quercetin-rich Onion Peel Extracts on Adipokine Expression in the Visceral Adipose Tissue of Rats.`by Kim OY, Lee SM, Do H, Moon J, Lee KH, Cha YJ, Shin MJ. (Source from Yonsei University Research Institute of Science for Aging, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that quercetin-rich onion peel extract supplementation influenced adipokine expressions, particularly from mesenteric fat, addressing the modulatory effect of this substance on obesity-induced inflammation.

13. Hepatotoxicity
In a study of `Hepatoprotective activity of quercetin against acrylonitrile-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. by Abo-Salem OM, Abd-Ellah MF, Ghonaim MM. (Source from Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Pretreatment with quercetin (70 mg/kg/day/6 weeks) and its coadministration with acrylonitrile prevented acrylonitrile-induced alterations in hepatic lipid peroxides and enzymatic antioxidants as well as serum aminotransferases and bilirubin. Histopathological findings supported the biochemical results. We suggest that querectin possess hepatoprotective effect against acrylonitrile-induced hepatotoxicity through its antioxidant activity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 00:1-7 2011; View this article online at DOI 10.1002/jbt.20406.

14. Etc.

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Phytochemicals: 12 health Benefits of Triterpenoids

Triterpenoids are a group of Terpenes (isoprenoids) is defined as terpenoid derviatives of triterpene molecules, including Oleanolic acid found in honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, etc.; Ursolic acid - apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, etc., moronic acid - Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe, etc. and Betulinic acid found in the bark of several species of plants such as birch.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

1. Cancers
In a study of "Pentacyclic Triterpenes of the Lupane, Oleanane and Ursane Group as Tools in Cancer Therapy" by Melanie N. Laszczyk, © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York, posted in Thieme Ejoiurnals, researchers found in abstract that Triterpene acids as well as triterpene monoalcohols and diols also show an antioxidative potential. The pharmacological potential of triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane or ursane type for cancer treatment seems high; although up to now no clinical trial has been published using these triterpenes in cancer therapy. They provide a multitarget potential for coping with new cancer strategies. Whether this is an effective approach for cancer treatment has to be proven. Because various triterpenes are an increasingly promising group of plant metabolites, the utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest. Parts of plants, for example birch bark, rosemary leaves, apple peel and mistletoe shoots are rich in triterpenes and provide different triterpene compositions.

2. Colon Cancer
According to the study of " Triterpenes from Ganoderma Lucidum induce autophagy in colon cancer through the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK)" by Thyagarajan A, Jedinak A, Nguyen H, Terry C, Baldridge LA, Jiang J, Sliva D. (Source from Methodist Research Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that
Autophagy is mediated through the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) because p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, induces autophagy and expression of Beclin-1 (1.2-fold increase) and LC-3 (7.4-fold increase), and GLT suppresses phosphorylation of p38 MAPK ( approximately 60% inhibition) in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism responsible for the inhibition of colon cancer cells by G. lucidum and suggest GLT as natural product for the treatment of colon cancer.

3. Inflammatory response
In a study of " Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum" by Dudhgaonkar S, Thyagarajan A, Sliva D. (Source Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, 1800 N Capitol Ave, E504, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Apart from its anti-inflammatory activity, GLT suppressed cell proliferation of RAW264.7 cells through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-G2M, which was mediated by the down-regulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D1, CDK4 and cyclin B1, respectively. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of GLT on macrophages are mediated through the inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signaling pathways.

4. Hepatoprotective
According to the study of " Hepatoprotective constituents of Torilis radiata Moench (Apiaceae) by
Ezzat SM, Abdallah HM, Fawzy GA, El-Maraghy SA (Source from a Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Cairo University , Cairo 11562 , Egypt), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The hepatoprotection of the AE and its fractions was assessed in terms of the reduction in histological damage, accompanied by restoration of the liver enzymes (alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), a reduction in the inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and myloperoxidase (MPO) in serum) and restoration of the oxidant balance by decreasing the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, along with increasing the activity of hepatic catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH).

5. Breast Cancer
According to teh study of " Inhibition of Wnt signaling by cucurbitacin B in breast cancer cells: Reduction of Wnt associated proteins and reduced translocation of galectin-3-mediated β-catenin to the nucleus" by Dakeng S, Duangmano S, Jiratchariyakul W, U-Pratya Y, Bögler O, Patmasiriwat P. (Source from Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Biochem.© 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that The relative luciferase activity was reduced when we treated cells with cucurbitacin (tetracyclic triterpenes) B compound for 24 hours. Our data suggest that cucurbitacin B may in part induce apoptosis and exert growth inhibitory effect via interruption the Wnt signaling. J. Cell.

6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
In a study of "Celastrol inhibits Tat-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription and replication" by Narayan V, Ravindra KC, Chiaro C, Cary D, Aggarwal BB, Henderson AJ, Prabhu KS. (Source from Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease and Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Celastrol (Cel), a triterpenoid MAE isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against Tat. Using biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that Cel, by covalently modifying the cysteine thiols, inhibits Tat transactivation function. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we show that alkylation of Tat brought about a change in the secondary structure of Tat, which inhibited the transcription elongation of the HIV proviral genome by effecting mechanisms other than Tat-TAR (transactivation-responsive region) interaction. Our results demonstrate the underlying mechanism of antiretroviral activity of the plant-derived MAEs and suggest that Cel could serve as a lead compound to develop novel antiviral therapeutics.

7. Antioxidant activities
According to the result of " Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam? by Pochapski MT, Fosquiera EC, Esmerino LA, Dos Santos EB, Farago PV, Santos FA, Groppo FC. (Source from Department of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests.

8. Oral mucosa cancer
According to the result of the study "Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer" by Gao Y, Zhang R, Zhang J, Gao S, Gao W, Zhang H, Wang H, Han B. (Source from Stomatology Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Using the optimized extraction process, ganoderma triterpenes could be extracted with high efficiency, and the results of animal tests showed inhibitory effects of ganoderma triterpenes on oral mucosa cancer.

9. Antibacterial activity
In a study of "Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as Antibacterial Agent" by Arruda AL, Vieira CJ, Sousa DG, Oliveira RF, Castilho RO. (Source from Course of Pharmacy, Department of Biological Sciences and Health, Dom Bosco Catholic University , Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), researchers found that Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.

10. Human T-cell leukemia
According to the study of " Apoptosis induction through proteasome inhibitory activity of cucurbitacin D in human T-cell leukemia" by Ding N, Yamashita U, Matsuoka H, Sugiura T, Tsukada J, Noguchi J, Yoshida Y. (Source from Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan), posted in PubMed, researchers found in abstract that cucurbitacin D was found to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of T-cell leukemia cells,... Cucurbitacin (tetracyclic triterpenoid) D induced apoptosis through suppression of proteasome activity both in vitro and in vivo, making cucurbitacin D a promising candidate for clinical applications in the treatment of T-cell leukemia.

11. Analgesic and anti-nociceptive
in a study of "Analgesic and anti-nociceptive activity of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata Willd" by Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. (Source from
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Assam, India), posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that DCHE was effective in both non-narcotic and narcotic models of nociception, suggesting its possible action via peripheral and central mechanism. It also abolished the early phase in formalin-induced paw licking model, suggesting complete inactivation of C-fiber at higher dose. The activity can be attributed to the phyto-constituents viz tannins, diterpenes, triterpenes and steroids present in the DCHE extract. In conclusion, DCHE (Drymaria cordata hydroethanolic extract) can be developed as a potent analgesic and anti-nociceptive agent in future.

12. Anxiolytic
According to the result of a study of "Anxiolytic effect of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata L Willd" by Barua CC, Roy JD, Buragohain B, Barua AG, Borah P, Lahkar M. (Source from Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Similarly, in elevated plus maze test, there was significant increase in the time spent and number of entries in open arm as compared to the time spent and number of entries in closed arm in dose dependent manner. In light/dark exploration test, another model for anxiolytic activity, the time spent in lit box, number of crossing and the latency period increased significantly with reduction in time spent in dark box after treatment with DCHE. The presence of phytochemicals viz. triterpenes, diterpenes, steroids and tannins might contribute to its anxiolytic activity.

13. Etc.

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Phytochemicals: 16 Health Benefits of Polyphenols

Polyphenols is a water-soluble compounds and type of phytochemical with structural presentation of (high density of phenolic substructure) large multiples of phenol structural units. It is best known for its antioxidant property.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

1. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity
In a study of " Determination of polyphenols in three Capsicum annuum L. (bell pepper) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Their contribution to overall antioxidant and anticancer activity." by Jeong WY, Jin JS, Cho YA, Lee JH, Park S, Jeong SW, Kim YH, Lim CS, El-Aty AM, Kim GS, Lee SJ, Shim JH, Shin SC. (Source from Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that the antioxidant activity and anticancer effect of the polyphenol mixtures of the three fruits were determined. The antioxidant and anticancer activities of CLST were substantially higher than those of C. annuum L. cv. Cupra and C. annuum L. cv. Orange glory. The high activities of CLST were attributed to the much higher concentration of quercetin derivatives in CLST.

2. Anti-Platelet Activation and Aggregation
In a study of " In vitro anti-platelet effects of simple plant-derived phenolic compounds are only found at high, non-physiological concentrations." by Ostertag LM, O'Kennedy N, Horgan GW, Kroon PA, Duthie GG, de Roos B. (Source from University of Aberdeen, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Aberdeen, UK.) posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Incubation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers with 100 μmol/L hippuric acid, pyrogallol, catechol, or resorcinol significantly inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation (all p<0.05; n≥15). Incubation of whole blood with concentrations of 100 μmol/L salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl glycine, 5-methoxysalicylic acid, and catechol significantly inhibited TRAP-induced surface P-selectin expression (all p<0.05; n=10). Incubation with lower concentrations of phenolics affected neither platelet aggregation nor activation. Conclusion: As concentrations of 100 μmol/L are unlikely to be reached in the circulation, it is doubtful whether consumption of dietary phenolics in nutritionally attainable amounts plays a major role in inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation in humans.

3. Lipid bilayer (Barrier around cells membrane)
In a study of " Effects of green tea catechins on gramicidin channel function and inferred changes in bilayer properties." by Ingólfsson HI, Koeppe RE 2nd, Andersen OS. (Source from Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, United States.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that all the catechins alter gA channel function and modify bilayer properties, with a 500-fold range in potency (EGCG>ECG≫EGC>EC). Additionally, the gallate group causes current block, as evident by brief downward current transitions (flickers).

4. Coronary heart disease
Cocoa, containing high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids has been reported to play an important protective role against the development of CHD. In a study of " Chocolate and Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review." by Khawaja O, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. (Source from Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center (MAVERIC), Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA, posted in PubMed, researchers found that Although studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of chocolate on endothelial function, blood pressure, serum lipids, insulin resistance, and platelet function, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption influences the risk of CHD. This article reviews current evidence on the effects of cocoa/chocolate on clinical and subclinical CHD, CHD risk factors, and potential biologic mechanisms. It also discusses major limitations of currently available data and future directions in the field.

5. Colon and Liver Cancer
In a study of " Inhibitory Effect of Antioxidant Extracts From Various Potatoes on the Proliferation of Human Colon and Liver Cancer Cells." by Wang Q, Chen Q, He M, Mir P, Su J, Yang Q. (Source from a State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement/College of Life Sciences , Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing , Jiangsu Province , China.) posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that An inverse correlation was found between total phenolics and the EC(50) of colon cancer cell (R(2) = 0.9303), as well as liver cancer cell proliferation (R(2) = 0.8992). The relationship between antioxidant activity and EC(50) of colon cancer/liver cancer cell proliferation was significant (R(2) = 0.8144; R(2) = 0.956, respectively). A significant difference in inhibition of cancer cells (P < 0.01) existed between the 3 polyphenols: chlorogenic acid, pelargonidin chloride, and malvidin chloride, suggesting that chlorogenic acid was a critical factor in the antiproliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells.

6. Antibacterial Effects
According to a study of " Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia." by Betts JW, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ. (Source from Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK.). posted in PubMed, researchers found that the results showed strong antibacterial activity of theaflavin against eight clinical isolates of S. maltophilia and A. baumannii. Significant synergy (P≤0.05) was also observed between theaflavin and epicatechin against all isolates. Although the mechanisms for this activity and synergy are not well understood, the clinical potential is clear and further research is recommended to determine the modes of action.

7. Lipid Abnormalities and Arterial dysfunction
In a study of " Polyphenols prevent lipid abnormalities and arterial dysfunction in hamsters on a high-fat diet: a comparative study of red grape and white persimmon wines." by Suh JH, Virsolvy A, Goux A, Cassan C, Richard S, Cristol JP, Teissèdre PL, Rouanet JM. (Source from UMR 204-Prévention des Malnutritions et des Pathologies Associées, Université Montpellier 1 & 2, Place E. Bataillon, CC 023, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The two wines partially prevented these alterations, reducing O(2)°(-) production and improving vascular reactivity without altering endothelial function. There was no difference between the P and M groups, although the procyanidin composition of the two dealcoholized fractions differed significantly, and only dimer concentrations were similar and concluded that these findings indicate that polyphenols are responsible, at least in part, for the antiatherogenic/antioxidant effects of wines.

8. Breast Cancer
According to a study of " Polyphenols, isothiocyanates and carotenoid derivatives enhance estrogenic activity in bone cells but inhibit it in breast cancer cells." by Veprik A, Khanin M, Linnewiel Hermoni K, Danilenko M, Levy Y, Sharoni Y. (Source from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.) reseachers found that these results were evident in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells stably transfected with estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and MC3T3-E1 mouse calvaria-derived cells expressing endogenous ER. Phytonutrient-induced ERE inhibition in breast cancer cells and its potentiation in osteoblast-like cells were associated with a decrease and elevation of total and nuclear ERα levels, respectively. Phytonutrients activated the antioxidant response element (ARE) transcription system to various extents in all the cell lines tested. Overexpression of Nrf2, the major ARE activating transcription factor, mimicked the effects of phytonutrients, causing inhibition and enhancement of ERE transactivation in breast cancer cells and in osteoblast-like cells, respectively. Moreover, reduction in Nrf2 levels by RNAi led to a decrease in the phytonutrient potentiation of ERE activity transactivation in osteoblast-like cells. These data suggest that the enhancement and inhibition of estrogen signaling by phytonutrients in bone-derived cells and breast cancer cells, respectively, is partially mediated by the activation of the Nrf2/ARE system.

9. Brian Memory Enhancers
In a study of " Electrophysiological evidence of the effect of natural polyphenols upon the human higher brain functions." by Cimrová B, Budáč S, Melicherová U, Jergelova M, Jagla F. (Source from Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Centre of excellence for examination of regulatory role of nitric oxide in civilization diseases Bratislava, Slovakia. posted in PubMed, researchers found that even a single dose of the ProvinolsTM was able to affect positively the space memory for limited time duration. The improvement in space memory function and/or the positive role of attentional mechanisms may be taken into account mainly. More sensitive analysis of the particular participation of attentional and memory components demands the further study.

10. Hepatitis B
In a study of " Inhibition of the Replication of Hepatitis B Virus in Vitro by Pu-erh Tea Extracts." by Pei S, Zhang Y, Xu H, Chen X, Chen S. (Source from State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan 430071, China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that The MTT assay showed that PTE and its active components (tea polyphenols, theaflavins, and theanine) presented low cytotoxicity. ELISA analysis revealed that PTE effectively reduced the secretion of HBeAg, but any one of the active components alone showed weaker efficacy, suggesting that the anti-HBV activity of PTE might be a synergetic effect of different components. RT-PCR and luciferase assay showed that PTE suppressed HBV mRNA expression while leaving four HBV promoter transcriptional activities unchanged. Fluorescence quantitative PCR results demonstrated that PTE dramatically diminished HBV DNA produced in cell supernatants as well as encapsidated DNA in intracellular core particles. Finally, PTE significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. This study is the first to demonstrate that PTE possesses anti-HBV ability and could be used as a potential treatment against HBV infection with an additional merit of low cytotoxicity.

11. Infectious Diseases
According to the study of " Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine." by Assob JC, Kamga HL, Nsagha DS, Njunda AL, Nde PF, Asongalem EA, Njouendou AJ, Sandjon B, Penlap VB, posted in PubMed, researchers found that the chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs, and concluded that these results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Key words: Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine.

12. Anti-inflammatory activity
In a study of "Aronia melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells." by Zapolska-Downar D, Bryk D, Małecki M, Hajdukiewicz K, Sitkiewicz D. (Sourcefrom Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, The Warsaw Medical University, Banacha 1 Street, 02-097, Warsaw, Poland, posted in PubMed, researchers found that A. Melanocarpa extract significantly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and decreased intracellular ROS production in TNFα-treated HAECs and concluded that conclude that A. Melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in HAECs by inhibiting the expression of endothelial CAMs, activation of NF-κB and production of ROS.

13. Lipid Peroxidation
In the study of "The natural antioxidant rosmarinic acid spontaneously penetrates membranes to inhibit lipid peroxidation in situ." by Fadel O, El Kirat K, Morandat S. (Sourcefrom Université de Technologie de Compiègne-CNRS, UMR 6022 Génie Enzymatique et Cellulaire, BP 20529, 60205 Compiègne Cedex, France). posted in PubMed, researchers found that we prepared DLPC/RA vesicles to evidence for the first time that up to 1 mol% of RA inserts spontaneously in the membrane, which is high enough to fully prevent lipid peroxidation without any noticeable alteration of the membrane structure due to RA insertion.

14. Osteoarthritis
According to the study of " Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis." by Katiyar SK, Raman C. (Source from Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. posted in PubMed, researchers found that In a recent study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea polyphenol, was found to be effective in reducing IL-1β-induced inflammatory cytokines, TNFα, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and several chemokines from human chondrocytes. The use of green tea polyphenols may be beneficial as a therapeutic addition to biologics that control IL-1β activity by increasing effectiveness and/or reducing dosage.

15. Acute kidney injury
In the study of "Alleviation of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury using phytochemical polyphenols is accompanied by reduced accumulation of indoxyl sulfate in rats." by Kusumoto M, Kamobayashi H, Sato D, Komori M, Yoshimura M, Hamada A, Kohda Y, Tomita K, Saito H. ( Source from Department of Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Injection of cisplatin in rats markedly elevated the SCr and BUN levels, which were accompanied by tubular injuries and the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). By contrast, quercetin significantly suppressed the SCr and BUN levels in the cisplatin-treated rats and protected them against renal injury with the decreased expression of Kim-1. Quercetin had no effect on serum and renal levels of cisplatin. In addition, quercetin had no effect on cisplatin-induced renal accumulation of malondialdehyde. IS concentrations in serum, kidney, liver, intestine and lung were markedly elevated by cisplatin treatment, whereas quercetin suppressed the serum and tissue IS levels. An in vitro kinetic assay revealed that quercetin displayed a potent inhibitory effect on hepatic production of IS and concluded that
Inhibition of IS accumulation by oral administration of quercetin alleviates cisplatin-induced AKI.

16. Digestive System
According to the study of "Antidiarrheal mechanism of Carpolobia lutea leaf fractions in rats." by
Nwidu LL, Essien GE, Nwafor PA, Vilegas W. (Source from Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University , Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State , Nigeria.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that The ethyl acetate fraction produced 100% inhibition of intestinal transit, an effect greater than pure drug. Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded polyphenolic compounds. Conclusion: The leaf fractions contain two types of antidiarrheal agents, one mediating its effect through α(1)-presynaptic adrenoceptor while the other does not. Polyphenols isolated may in part lend credence for observed antidiarrheal activity.

17. Etc.

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Phytochemicals: 11 Health Benefits of Plant Sterols

Plant sterols are water insoluble, a group of naturally phytochemocal resembling cholesterol, an essential fat produced by liver and or intestines used by your body to produce hormones and cell membranes, and aid in manufactoring bile acids, steroid hormones, and Vitamin D. It is best known for its function of lowering blood cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular disease. In a study of Phytosterols: Perspectives in Human Nutrition and Clinical Therapy." by
Choudhary SP, Tran LS. (Source from Signaling Pathway Research Unit, RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan., researchers indicated that this manuscript will highlight the recent developments in PSs with particular focus on their role as dietary supplements and in treatment of various heart- and cholesterol-related ailments. Recently explored side effects of PSs will also be discussed.

Ovarian Cyst Miracle
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To Help Reverse Ovarian Cysts Holistically

1. Cardiovascular Disease
According to the study of "Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease." by
Eussen SR, Feenstra TL, Toxopeus IB, Hoekstra J, Klungel OH, Verhagen H, van Kranen HJ, Rompelberg CJ. (Source from National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, P.O. Box 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that This simulation study showed that the cost-effectiveness of phytosterols/-stanols as monotherapy and as add-on to statins is above thresholds for cost-effectiveness, generally ranging between €20,000 and €50,000, and is thus a non-cost-effective strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease.

2. Cholesterol
In a study of " Naturally-occurring phytosterols in the usual diet influence cholesterol metabolism in healthy subjects." by Sanclemente T, Marques-Lopes I, Fajó-Pascual M, Cofán M, Jarauta E, Ros E, Puzo J, García-Otín AL. (Source from Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sports, University of Zaragoza, Plaza Universidad 3, 22002-Huesca, Spain), posted in PubMed, researchers found that A total of 85 healthy volunteers were studied regarding their dietary habits (using a validated food frequency questionnaire), lipid profile and surrogate markers of cholesterol metabolism. Subjects were classified into tertiles of total phytosterol intake, and differences in lipid profile and markers of cholesterol metabolism were assessed by multivariate linear regression models adjusted for various confounders. The estimated daily intake of phytosterols and cholesterol was 489 (median) and 513 (mean) mg, respectively. Both serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration and sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratio adjusted by sitosterol intake (a surrogate marker of intestinal cholesterol absorption) decreased significantly (p < 0.05, both) across tertiles of phytosterol intake, and concluded that Moderate doses of phytosterols in the habitual diet might have a protective effect on the lipid profile via decreasing cholesterol absorption.

3. Anti-inflammation
According to the study of " Beyond cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterols: clinical and experimental evidence of anti-inflammatory properties." by Othman RA, Moghadasian MH. (Source from Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba and Canadian Centre for Agri-food Research in Health and Medicine, St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.) posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Inflammation is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary plant sterols are known to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and thereby reduce cardiovascular risk. Recent observations from animal and human studies have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of phytosterols. For example, several animal and human studies report reductions in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including C-reactive protein, after consumption of dietary plant sterols......

4. Atherosclerosis
In a study of "Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet." by Xu J, Zhou X, Deng Q, Huang Q, Yang J, Huang F. (Source from Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, PR China.) posted in PubMed. reseachers found that Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably and concluded that Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation.

5. Healthy Aging
According to the study of " Plant sterols and stanols for healthy ageing." by Rudkowska I. (Source
from Lipid Research Center, CHUQ-CHUL Pavilion, Québec, Québec, Canada., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that PS have recently been investigated for the prevention of other age-related diseases. The objective of this review is to examine the benefits of PS on CVD as well as ageing-associated diseases. PS have the ability to significantly lower LDL-C; yet, the large inter-individual variability in the lowering of LDL-C may be due to subject characteristics, food matrix of PS, dose of PS, dietary background, frequency of intake of PS, the additive effect of other foods or drugs, as well as genetic factors. Further, PS may also have other potential beneficial effects including anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. Overall, dietary intervention strategies, such as incorporating PS into a healthy diet, should be recommended and implemented in older adult populations in order to prevent ageing-associated diseases and hence promote healthy ageing.

6. Hypercholesterolemia
in a Russian study of "
[Contemporary approaches to nondrug correction of hypercholesterolemia]." [Article in Russian] by Pogozheva AV. (Source from Moskow, Russia.) posted in PubMed, reseachers found that efficacy of such minor components of food as phytosterols has been demonstrated. Their use as supplements to fermented dairy product has facilitated significant lowering of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol without negative action on the state of hepato biliary system.

7. Oxidative Stress
According to the study of " Evaluation of cardiovascular risk and oxidative stress parameters in hypercholesterolemic subjects on a standard healthy diet including low-fat milk enriched with plant sterols." by Bañuls C, Martínez-Triguero ML, López-Ruiz A, Morillas C, Lacomba R, Víctor VM, Rocha M, Hernández-Mijares A. (Source from Service of Endocrinology, University Hospital Dr. Peset, Valencia, Spain.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that After 3 months on a standard healthy diet, subjects were divided into two intervention groups: a diet group and a diet+PS group (2 g/day). Lipid profile, apolipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed. Diet significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol (4.0% and 4.7%, respectively), produced an increase in the level of beta-carotene (23%) and improved the antioxidant capacity of LDL cholesterol particles (4.6%). PS induced a significant decrease in total cholesterol (6.4%), LDL (9.9%) and the apolipoprotein B100/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (4.9%), but led to a decrease in cryptoxanthin level (29%) without any change being observed in the antioxidant capacity of LDL cholesterol particles, total antioxidant status or lipid peroxidation. After 3 months, we observed the positive effect of including a PS supplement in dietary measures, as the lipoprotein-mediated risk of cardiovascular disease was reduced. Despite a decrease in the concentration of cryptoxanthin, no evidence of a global impairment of antioxidative defenses or an enhancement of oxidative stress parameters was found.

8. Lipid Peroxidation
According to the study of " Freeze-dried strawberry powder improves lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome: baseline and post intervention effects." by
Basu A, Wilkinson M, Penugonda K, Simmons B, Betts NM, Lyons TJ. (Source from Department of Nutritional Sciences, 301 Human Environmental Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA., posted in PibMed. researchers found that Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower at 4 weeks versus baseline (-5% and -6%, respectively, p < 0.05), as was lipid peroxidation in the form of malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal (-14%, p < 0.01). Oxidized-LDL showed a decreasing trend at 4 weeks (p = 0.123). No effects were noted on markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein and adiponectin. A significant number of subjects (13/16) showed an increase in plasma ellagic acid at four weeks versus baseline, while no significant differences were noted in dietary intakes at four weeks versus baseline. Thus, short-term supplementation of freeze-dried strawberries appeared to exert hypocholesterolemic effects and decrease lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome.

9. Cancers
In a study of " Anticancer effects of phytosterols." by Woyengo TA, Ramprasath VR, Jones PJ. (Source from Department of Animal Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T6C5, Canada.) posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Phytosterol consumption may also increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thereby reduce oxidative stress. In addition to altering cell-membrane structure and function, phytosterols probably promote apoptosis by lowering blood cholesterol levels. Moreover, consumption of phytosterols by healthy humans at the recommended level of 2 g per day does not cause any major health risks. In summary, mounting evidence supports a role for phytosterols in protecting against cancer development. Hence, phytosterols could be incorporated in diet not only to lower the cardiovascular disease risk, but also to potentially prevent cancer development.

10. Antiplatelet effects and phytosterols
According to the study of " Antiplatelet effects of aspirin with phytosterols: comparison with non-enteric coated aspirin alone." by Antonino MJ, Coppolecchia R, Mahla E, Bliden KP, Tantry US, Gurbel PA. (Source fromSinai Center for Thrombosis Research, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers found that five days after randomization to aspirin alone versus aspirin+phytosterols (T2), there were no differences in any measurement of platelet function within each group compared to T1 or between groups. The present study suggests that the antiplatelet effect of non-enteric coated 81 mg twice-daily aspirin therapy alone is not affected by the addition of phytosterols in a combination product.

11. Central Nervous System
In a study of " Increased plant sterol and stanol levels in brain of Watanabe rabbits fed rapeseed oil derived plant sterol or stanol esters." by Fricke CB, Schrøder M, Poulsen M, von Bergmann K, Wester I, Knudsen I, Mortensen A, Lütjohann D. (Source from Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany.) posted in PubMed, reseachers found that Concentrations of cholesterol, its precursor lathosterol, plant sterols and stanols in brain and additionally in liver and plasma were determined by highly sensitive GC-MS. High-dose intake of RSO derived plant sterols and stanols resulted in increased levels of these components in plasma and liver. In brain a limited uptake of plant sterols and stanols was proven, indicating that these compounds passed the blood-brain barrier and may be retained in the brain tissue of Watanabe rabbits. Plant stanol ester feeding lowered plant sterol levels in brain, liver, and plasma. Cholesterol synthesis in brain, indicated by lathosterol, a local surrogate cholesterol synthesis marker, does not seem to be affected by plant sterol or stanol ester feeding. We conclude that high dose intake of plant sterol and stanol esters in Watanabe rabbits results in elevated concentrations of these components not only in the periphery but also in the central nervous system.

12. Etc.

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