Friday, September 9, 2011

Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Ellagic Acid

Phenolic acids are a type of phytochemical compounds found in many plants, especially in certain dried fruits, including ellagic Acid is a type of phytochemical compound, including Ellagic acid, found mostly in walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries and grapes, gallic acid found mostly in tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy, Salicylic acid found abundant in peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat, tannic acid comtains in nettles, tea, berries, Vanillin found in vanilla beans, cloves, capsaicin found in chilli peppers, and curcumin found in turmeric, mustard.recently, it has been studied by many researchers for its role of some health benefit.
Ellagic acid, found mostly in walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries and grapes has been found to demonstrate certain health effects, including

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1. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant
In a study of " In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice" by Navindra P. Seerama, Lynn S. Adamsa, Susanne M. Henninga, Yantao Niua, Yanjun Zhangbc, Muraleedharan G. Nairbc, David Hebera (Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 360-367 (June 2005)), posted in The journal of Ntritional Biochemitry, researchers indicated that Antioxidant effects were evaluated using inhibition of lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Pomegranate juice showed greatest antiproliferative activity against all cell lines by inhibiting proliferation from 30% to 100%. At 100 μg/ml, PJ, EA, punicalagin and TPT induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cells. However, in the HCT116 colon cells, EA, punicalagin and TPT but not PJ induced apoptosis. The trend in antioxidant activity was PJ>TPT>punicalagin>EA. The superior bioactivity of PJ compared to its purified polyphenols illustrated the multifactorial effects and chemical synergy of the action of multiple compounds compared to single purified active ingredients.

2. Anti aging
According to the research of "Dietary compound ellagic acid alleviates skin wrinkle and inflammation induced by UV-B irradiation." by Bae JY, Choi JS, Kang SW, Lee YJ, Park J, Kang YH.(Source fromDepartment of Food and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.) posted im PubMed, researchers found that this compound mitigated inflammatory intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes and photoaged mouse epidermis. These results demonstrate that ellagic acid prevented collagen destruction and inflammatory responses caused by UV-B. Therefore, dietary and pharmacological interventions with berries rich in ellagic acid may be promising treatment strategies interrupting skin wrinkle and inflammation associated with chronic UV exposure leading to photoageing.

3. Cancers
In a study of "Inhibition of N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in rats by ellagic acid" by Swapna Mandal and Gary D. Stoner posted in Carcinogenesis, researchers found that FA exhibited inhibitory effects toward preneoplastic lesions as well as neoplastic lesions. Tumors were not observed in vehicle-control rats or in rats that received EA alone.

Oxidative stress
According to the article of "BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONALITY OF ELLAGIC ACID: A REVIEW" by D.A. VATTEM and K. SHETTY , Article first published online: 30 JUN 2005, posted in Wiley Online Library, researchers indicated that in abstract, in this article, we have revised the existing models and have proposed a comprehensive model for the antioxidant response-linked mechanism of the action of ellagic acid from fruits at the early stages of host cellular response by the modulation of enzyme response to maintain cellular homeostasis in eukaryotes and by inhibiting the survival in pathogenic prokaryotes.

5. Heart diseases
In a study of " Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation" by Michael Aviram, Mira Rosenblat, Diana Gaitini, Samy Nitecki, Aaron Hoffman, Leslie Dornfeld, Nina Volkova, Dita Presser, Judith Attias, Harley Liker and Tony Hayek posted in Clinical Nutritition, reseachers found that The results of the present study thus suggest that PJ consumption by patients with CAS decreases carotid IMT and systolic blood pressure and these effects could be related to the potent antioxidant characteristics of PJ polyphenols.
Please note that Pomegranate juice contians high concentration of Ellagic Acid.

6. Prostate Cancer
According to the study of " Support Ellagic Acid Therapy in Patients with Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer (HRPC) on Standard Chemotherapy Using Vinorelbine and Estramustine Phosphate" by Mario Falsaperla, Giuseppe Morgia, Alfredo Tartarone, Raffaele Ardito and Giampiero Romano posted in European Urology, researchers found that the mean number of chemotherapy cycles/patient was 4 (range 3–8 cycles) and 6.5 (range 5–11) in group A and B patients, respectively. A reduction in systemic toxicity, statistically significant for neutropenia, associated with better results in term of OR rate, ICR, and BR were observed in group B compared with group A. On the contrary no significant difference in OS and PFS was detected between groups and concluded that our study suggests that the use of ellagic acid as support therapy reduces chemotherapy induced toxicity, in particular neutropenia, in HRCP patients; however, further studies are required to confirm our results.

7. Human Lymphocytes DNA
In a study of" Blackberry Seed Extracts and Isolated Polyphenolic Compounds Showing Protective Effect on Human Lymphocytes DNA." by Gođevac D, Tešević V, Vajs V, Milosavljević S, Stanković M.( Source from Authors Gođevac and Vajs are with Inst. of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Njegoševa 12, Univ. of Belgrade, Serbia. Authors Tešević and Milosavljević are with Faculty of Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, Univ. of Belgrade, Serbia. Author Stanković is with Inst. of Nuclear Science "Vinča," Univ. of Belgrade, Serbia. Direct inquiries to author Gođevac (E-mail: Posted in PubMed, reseachers found that our results provide evidence of protective effects of BSEs (ellagitannins, galic acid derivatives, and ellagic acid derivatives) and isolated pure compounds on cytogenetic damages in human lymphocytes. Thus, BSEs could exert beneficial effects in quite a few diseases, because many of the biological actions have been attributed to their antioxidant properties.

8. Respiratory system
According to the study of " Mechanistic Clues in the Protective Effect of Ellagic Acid Against Apoptosis and Decreased Mitochondrial Respiratory Enzyme Activities in Myocardial Infarcted Rats." by Mari Kannan M, Darlin Quine S. (Source from SASTRA University, Thirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Ellagic acid pretreatment reduced the infarct size, regulated apoptotic gene expressions and enhanced the activities of mitochondrial respiratory marker enzymes and cell viability, thereby protecting the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. The decreased infarct size associated with inhibited apoptosis and increased respiratory marker enzymes provide insight on the role of ellagic acid in antiapoptotic mechanism, and it may be the reason for its cardioprotective activity.

9. Crohn's disease
In a study of " Protective effect of ellagic acid, a natural polyphenolic compound, in a murine model of Crohn's disease." by Rosillo MA, Sanchez-Hidalgo M, Cárdeno A, Alarcón de la Lastra C. (Source from Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Profesor García González Street 2, 41012 Seville, Spain.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that EA increased mucus production in goblet cells in colon mucosa, decreased neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS overexpression. Also EA was capable of reducing the activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 MAPKs, preventing the inhibitory protein IκB-degradation and inducing an inhibition of the nuclear translocation level of p65 in colonic mucosa. In conclusion, EA reduces the damage in a rat model of Crohn's disease, alleviates the oxidative events and returns pro-inflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through MAPKs and NF-κB signalling pathways.

10. Testicular health
In a research of " Attenuating effect of lycopene and ellagic acid on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced spermiotoxicity and testicular apoptosis." by Sönmez M, Türk G, Ceribaşı AO, Sakin F, Ateşşahin A. (Source from Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University , Elazığ , Turkey.) posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that combined treatment with LC or EA, in addition to TCDD, prevented the development of TCDD-induced damages in sperm quality, testicular histology, and LPO. Improvements in testicular apoptosis after the administration of LC and EA to TCDD-treated rats were minimal, but not statistically significant. TCDD-induced lipid peroxidation leads to functional and structural damages, as well as apoptosis, in spermatogenic cells of rats. Both LC and EA protected against the development of these effects.

11. Gastroprotective and ulcer-healing
According to the study of " Gastroprotective and ulcer-healing mechanisms of ellagic acid in experimental rats." by Beserra AM, Calegari PI, Souza Mdo C, Dos Santos RA, Lima JC, Silva RM, Balogun SO, Martins DT. (Source from Department of Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Coxipó, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Its gastroprotective mechanism in ethanol-induced ulcer were partly due to intensification in the endogenous production of nitric oxide, an antioxidant effect by replenishing depletion of endogenous nonprotein sulfhydryls and attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-α increase, whereas in indomethacin ulcer, it is partly due to a reduction in the plasma level of leukotriene B(4). In acetic acid ulcer, promotion of ulcer-healing effects was partly due to attenuation of the elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, interferon-γ, and interleukins-4 and -6. These findings suggest that ellagic acid exerts its antiulcer activity by strengthening the defensive factors and attenuating the offensive factors.

12. Cholesterol
In a study of "Ellagic acid inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)-induced metalloproteinase (MMP) expression by modulating the protein kinase C-α/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ/nuclear factor-κB (PKC-α/ERK/PPAR-γ/NF-κB) signaling pathway in endothelial cells." by Kuo MY, Ou HC, Lee WJ, Kuo WW, Hwang LL, Song TY, Huang CY, Chiu TH, Tsai KL, Tsai CS, Sheu WH. Sourcefrom Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan) posted in PubMed, researchers found that ellagic acid as well as pharmacological inhibitors of ROS, calcium, and PKC strongly suppressed the oxLDL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NF-κB activation. Moreover, ellagic acid ameliorated the oxLDL-induced suppression of PPAR-γ expression. In conclusion, the data suggest that ellagic acid elicits its protective effects by modulating the PKC-α/ERK/PPAR-γ/NF-κB pathway, resulting in the suppression of ROS generation and, ultimately, inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression in HUVECs exposed to oxLDL.

13. Anti-inflammation
In a study of " Antinociceptive effect of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. independent of anti-inflammatory activity of ellagic acid. by Nascimento MV, Galdino PM, Florentino IF, Sampaio BL, Vanderlinde FA, de Paula JR, Costa EA. (Source from Instituto de Ciências Biológicas-2, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil. posted in PubMed. researchers found that Pre-treatment with naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect. Only the ethyl acetate fraction showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Our results also showed that this extract contains compounds with analgesic action independent of anti-inflammatory activity.

14. Blood platelet
According to the studt of "The effect of ellagic acid on platelet activation as measured by the quantification of P-selectin using flow cytometry." by Attilio P, Merritt C, Sims J, Kane N, O'Sullivan J. (Source from USA Army Graduate Program in Anesthesia Nursing, San Antonio, TX, USA.) Posted in PubMed, researchers found that compared with all other groups, ellagic acid plus ketorolac group showed a significant decrease in platelet activation (P = .01). Our findings suggest that ellagic acid is likely a nonspecific COX inhibitor. It also suggests that combining ellagic acid with a known nonspecific COX inhibitor such as ketorolac may cause a significant decrease in platelet activity and an increase in blood loss.

15. Men reproductive health
In a study of " Impact of ellagic acid on adriamycin-induced testicular histopathological lesions, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation and sperm damages." by Ceribaşı AO, Sakin F, Türk G, Sönmez M, Ateşşahin A. (Source from Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fırat University, University Street, 23119 Elazığ, Turkey.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that
EA administration to ADR-treated rats provided significant improvements in ADR-induced disturbed oxidant/antioxidant balance, decreased testosterone concentration, testicular apoptosis and mild improvements in the histopathological view of the testicular tissue. However, EA failed to improve decreased reproductive organ weights and deteriorated sperm parameters due to ADR administration. It is concluded that while ADR has direct or indirect (lipid peroxidation) negative effects on sperm structure and testicular apoptosis in rats, EA has protective effects on ADR-induced testicular lipid peroxidation and apoptosis.

16. Etc.
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