Monday, September 12, 2011

Phytochemicals: 14 Health Benefits of Phenolic Acids

Phenolic acids, is a type of photochemical found abundantly in aplle and other fruits, including The organic compound has been proven in several studies for its health effect in preventing and treating numbers of disease, such as flu and colds, diabetes or cancer, etc.

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1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial
In a study of " Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the various extracts of Verbascum pinetorum Boiss. O. Kuntze (Scrophulariaceae)." by Ozcan B, Esen M, Caliskan M, Mothana RA, Cihan AC, Yolcu H. (Source from Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey., posted in PubMed, researchers found that
a. Antimicrobial
The hexane extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against few microorganisms. However, dichloromethane, direct methanol and methanol/chloroform extracts are effective on a broad range of microorganisms. Among the tested bacteria Haemophilus influenzae was found to be the most sensitive bacterium.
b. Antioxidants
The 50% (IC50) inhibition activity of the methanolic extract of V. pinetorum on the free radical DPPH was determined as 13.04 mg/ml. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by methanolic extract of V. pinetorum, which showed 89.39% inhibition that is quite close to the value of the synthetic antioxidant reagent butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), 92.46%. Iridoid glycosides, flavonoids and saponins were determined as the major natural compounds in the methanolic extracts. The total phenolic components of V. pinetorum were found as 42.45 mg/g gallic acid equivalent.
They concluded that the results provide evidence that the extracts of V. pinetorum contained iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds which may be responsible for the substantial antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

2. Cancers
According to the study of " Teucrium plant species as natural sources of novel anticancer compounds: antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antioxidant properties." by Stankovic MS, Curcic MG, Zizic JB, Topuzovic MD, Solujic SR, Markovic SD. (Source from Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Str. Radoja Domanovića No. 12, 34000 Kragujevac, Republic of Serbia; E-Mails: (M.G.C.); (J.B.Z.); (M.D.T.);, posted in PubMed, researchers found that treatments caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and showed a high percentage of apoptotic cells. The results of the presented research indicate that some Teucrium extracts are a very rich source of phenols, which may directly contribute to high antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity.

3. Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)
In a study of "Evaluation of four Cameroonian medicinal plants for anticancer, antigonorrheal and antireverse transcriptase activities." by Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Mapunya BM, Beng VP, Nkengfack AE, Meyer JJ, Lall N. (Source from Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Extracts from B. engleriana also inhibited more than 80% the activity of the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) enzyme. Finally, the results of the present study provide baseline information for the use of B. engleriana, C. lusitanica, G. tessmanii, V. paradoxa.

4. Endothelial Dysfunction
According to the study of " NOS3 Glu298Asp Polymorphism Interacts with Virgin Olive Oil Phenols to Determine the Postprandial Endothelial Function in Patients with the Metabolic Syndrome." by Jiménez-Morales AI, Ruano J, Delgado-Lista J, Fernandez JM, Camargo A, López-Segura F, Caballero Villarraso J, Fuentes-Jiménez F, López-Miranda J, Pérez-Jiménez F.
(Source from Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit (A.I.J.-M., J.R., J.D.-L., J.M.F., A.C., F.L.-S., F.F.-J., J.L.-M., F.P.-J.), Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba/Reina Sofia University Hospital/University of Cordoba, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, and Biochemical Laboratory (J.C.V.), Reina Sofia University Hospital, 14004 Cordoba) posted in PubMed, researchers found that In a population with a compromised endothelial function, concentrations of phenols in dietary VOO interact with NOS3 Glu298Asp to ameliorate the endothelial dysfunction associated to the TT genotype.

5. Analgesic activity
According to the study of "Analgesic activity of the aqueous fraction from the ethanolic extract of Chrysanthemum indicum in mice." by Chen YF, Zhao MH, Yan M, Shi GB, Hou GX, Huang Y, Wang X, Zhao QC. (Source from Department of Pharmacy, Shen-yang North Hospital, Shen-yang PR China., posted in PubMed, researchers found that in a measurement of core body temperature, AF did not affect temperature within 80 min. Moreover, the effective dose (600 mg/kg) also showed no toxicity within 7 days. These results suggested further that AF produced analgesic activity possibly related to the flavonoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides in this fraction.

6. High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
In a study of " Coffee Consumption Enhances High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux in Macrophages" by Harumi Uto-Kondo, Makoto Ayaori, Masatsune Ogura, Kazuhiro Nakaya, Mai Ito, Atsushi Suzuki, Shun-ichi Takiguchi, Emi Yakushiji, Yoshio Terao, Hideki Ozasa, Tetsuya Hisada, Makoto Sasaki, Fumitaka Ohsuzu and Katsunori Ikewaki, posted in Circulation Research, researchers found that Coffee intake might have an antiatherogenic property by increasing ABCG1 and SR-BI expression and enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages via its plasma phenolic acids.

7. Antibacterial
In a study of "Structure-Function Relationships of the Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Acids and Their Metabolism by Lactic Acid Bacteria." by Sánchez-Maldonado AF, Schieber A, Gänzle MG. (Source from Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The influence of lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity of hydroxybenzoic acids is stronger than that of hydroxycinnamic acids. Metabolism of phenolic acids by LAB detoxifies phenolic acids.

8. Atherosclerosis
According to the study of "Phenolic Acids Are in Vivo Atheroprotective Compounds Appearing in the Serum of Rats after Blueberry Consumption." by Xie C, Kang J, Chen JR, Nagarajan S, Badger TM, Wu X. (Source from USDA Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, ‡Department of Physiology and Biophysics, #Department of Pediatrics, and ⊥Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences , 15 Children's Way, Little Rock, Arkansas 72202, United States.), posted in PubMed, reseachers found that in summary, the present study demonstrates that certain phenolic acids are potential in vivo atheroprotective compounds following BB consumption in the rodent model. Because BB contain many phytochemicals, other as yet unidentified bioactive compounds may also be important in preventing atherosclerosis in this model and, possibly, in humans.

9. Colon cancer
According to the study of "Plant secondary metabolites and gut health: the case for phenolic acids." by Russell W, Duthie G. (Source from Molecular Nutrition Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK.). posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Several phenolic acids affect the expression and activity of enzymes involved in the production of inflammatory mediators of pathways thought to be important in the development of gut disorders including colon cancer. However, at present, we remain largely ignorant as to which of these compounds are beneficial to gut health. Until we can elucidate which pro-inflammatory and potentially carcinogenetic changes in gene expression can be moderated by simple phenolic acids, it is not possible to recommend specific plant-based foods rich in particular phenolics to optimise gut health.

10. Diuretic Activity
In a study of "Antioxidant, diuretic activities and polyphenol content of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. (Bignoniaceae). by Compaoré M, Lamien-Meda A, Mogoşan C, Lamien CE, Kiendrebeogo M, Voştinaru O, Vlase L, Ionescu C, Nacoulma OG. (Source from a Département de Biochimie-Microbiologie , Université de Ouagadougou , Ouagadougou , Burkina Faso.) posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that This aqueous acetone extract was further proven to have interesting xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, but only a weak diuretic activity. This aqueous acetone extract also possessed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents. HPLC-MS analysis allowed identifying and quantifying, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and luteolin and the glycosides of ferulic, sinapic p-coumaric acids and kaempferol, apigenin in aqueous-acetone extract.

11. Anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity
In a study of "Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antifungal activity of Chuquiraga spinosa." by
Casado R, Landa A, Calvo J, García-Mina JM, Marston A, Hostettmann K, Calvo MI. (Source from Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain., posted in PubMed, Researchers wrote that preliminary phytochemical screening and the analysis of the three extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection showed the majority compounds are flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives. These compounds may be responsible of the radical-scavenging activity of these extracts as well as responsible of anti-inflammatory effect in vivo of 50% methanol extract. Several authors have demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of some flavonoids and phenolic acids. The antifungal activity of the extracts obtained from aerial parts of C. spinosa has been investigated here for the first time. Other studies are necessary to determine the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds of this plant.

12. Prostate cancer
According to the study of "Chemopreventive effects of tea in prostate cancer: Green tea versus black tea." by Henning SM, Wang P, Heber D. (Source from Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA., posted in PubMed, reseachers wrote that after consumption of GT, higher concentrations of polyphenols are found in the circulation, whereas after BT consumption the phenolic acid levels in the circulation are higher. The majority of in vitro cell culture, in vivo animal, and clinical intervention studies examine the effects of extracts of GT or purified (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on prostate carcinogenesis. These studies provide strong evidence supporting a chemopreventive effect of GT, but results from epidemiological studies of GT consumption are mixed. While the evidence for a chemopreventive effect of BT is much weaker than the body of evidence with regard to GT.

13. Ulcers
In a study of " Gastroprotective activities of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) on the growth of the stomach cancer AGS cell line and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers." by
Chung CP, Hsia SM, Lee MY, Chen HJ, Cheng F, Chan LC, Kuo YH, Lin YL, Chiang W.
( Source from Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that" the antiulcer activity of DA was examined in an indomethacin-induced gastric lesion model. The ulcer index (UI) and oxidative biomarkers in animals decreased, while the non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups were elevated when given DA. This is the first investigation of antiulcer activity of adlay, and we demonstrated that the antioxidative-active phenolic acids in DA contribute to some portion of the gastroprotective effects.

14. Etc.

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