Friday, September 9, 2011

Phytochemicals: 12 Health Benefits of Tyrosol

Tyrosol is a phytochemical compound, a derivative of phenethyl alcohol, belongings to the group of tyrosol esters, including found mostly in olive oil. It is best known for its antioxidants in protecting the forming of free radicals and lipid oxidation causes of heart disease. According to the study of " Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans" vy E Miró-Casas, M-I Covas, M Fitó, M Farré-Albadalejo, J Marrugat and R de la Torre, posted in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2003) 57, 186–190. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601532), researchers indicated that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from realistic doses of virgin olive oil. With regard to the dose–effect relationship, 24 h urinary tyrosol seems to be a better biomarker of sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil consumption than hydroxytyrosol.

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1. Antioxidant
In study of " Tyrosol, the major olive oil biophenol, protects against oxidized-LDL-induced injury in Caco-2 cells." by Giovannini C, Straface E, Modesti D, Coni E, Cantafora A, De Vincenzi M, Malorni W, Masella R. (Source from Department of Metabolism and Pathological Biochemistry, Department of Food and Department of Ultrastructures, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome, Italy.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Caco-2 cell treatment (24 and/or 48 h) with oxidized LDL (0.2 g/L) resulted in cytostatic and cytotoxic effects characterized by a series of morphological and functional alterations: membrane damage, modifications of cytoskeleton network, microtubular disorganization, loss of cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts, cell detachment and cell death. The oxidized LDL-induced alterations in Caco-2 cells were almost completely prevented by tyrosol which was added 2 h before and present during the treatments.

2. Antibacterial effects
According to the study of " Synergistic antibacterial effects of polyphenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater. by Tafesh A, Najami N, Jadoun J, Halahlih F, Riepl H, Azaizeh H. (Source from The Institute of Applied Research (Affiliated with University of Haifa), The Galilee Society, P.O. Box 437, Shefa-Amr 20200, Israel.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100-100/100 μg mL(-1) caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW (olive mill wastewater) specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

3. Cervical cancer and antiproliferation correlated with DNA damage
In study of "Antiproliferation of HeLa cells by 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-[2-p-tolylethyl]-benzamide is associated with induction of DNA damage and inhibition of DNA replication." by Du J, Miao C, Zhang X, Jeong IH, Son EM, You S, Lee BJ, Kim DK. (Source from Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry and Institute of Basic Sciences, Inje University, 607 Aubang-dong, Gimhae 621-749, Republic of Korea; School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that
3.1. The compound 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-[2-p-tolylethyl]-benzamide (THTEB) is one of the derivatives of tyrosol, which is p-tyrosol combined with gallic acid by an amide bond. In this study, THTEB displayed a significant antiproliferative effect on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. and
3.2. suggest that THTEB could induce tumor cell antiproliferation correlated with DNA damage and DNA replication inhibition, but the target molecule of THTEB remains elusive.

4. Alzheimer Disease
In a study of " Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol, Two Main Components of Olive Oil, Protect N2a Cells against Amyloid-β-Induced Toxicity. Involvement of the NF-κB Signaling." by St-Laurent-Thibault C, Arseneault M, Longpré F, Ramassamy C. (Source from INRS-Institut Armand Frappier, 531, boul. des Prairies, Laval, Québec, H7V 1B7, Canada., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the increase in the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits after Aβ exposure was attenuated in the presence of Tyr or OH-Tyr. These results identified two individual food components of the MeDi as neuroprotective agent against Aβ and their potential involvement in the beneficial effect of the MeDi for the prevention of AD.

5. Cholesterol effect
In a study of " Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits." by Wiseman SA, Mathot JN, de Fouw NJ, Tijburg LB. (Source from Unilever Research Laboratory, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.) posted in PubMed. researchers concluded that The rate of conjugated diene formation was not influenced by the presence of dietary polyphenols. Results demonstrate that antioxidants, possibly phenolic compounds which are present only in extra virgin olive oil, may contribute to the endogenous antioxidant capacity of LDL, resulting in an increased resistance to oxidation as determined in vitro.

6. Bone loss

In a study of "Olive polyphenol hydroxytyrosol prevents bone loss." by Hagiwara K, Goto T, Araki M, Miyazaki H, Hagiwara H. (Source from Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Japan.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Our results demonstrate that differentiation-associated changes in tau and Cdk-5 modulate the toxicity of Abeta and explain the opposite responses of differentiated and undifferentiated neurons to Abeta. Our results predict that only cells containing appreciable levels of tau are susceptible to Abeta-induced toxicity and may explain why Abeta is more toxic to neurons compared with other cell types.

7. Cancers
In a study of " Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13800 patients and 23340 controls in 19 observational studies." by Psaltopoulou T, Kosti RI, Haidopoulos D, Dimopoulos M, Panagiotakos DB. (Source from Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, M, Asias 75, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece., posted in PubMed, researchers found that olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of developing breast cancer (logOR = -0,45 95%CI -0.78 to -0.12), and a cancer of the digestive system (logOR = -0,36 95%CI -0.50 to -0.21), compared with the lowest intake. The strength and consistency of the findings states a hypothesis about the protective role of olive oil intake on cancer risk. However, it is still unclear whether olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid content or its antioxidant components are responsible for its beneficial effects.

8. Breast cancer
According to the study of "
Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk." by Martin-Moreno JM, Willett WC, Gorgojo L, Banegas JR, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Fernandez-Rodriguez JC, Maisonneuve P, Boyle P. (Source from Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Escuela Nacional de Sanidad, Madrid, Spain.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that higher consumption of olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fat) was significantly related to a lower risk of breast cancer [for highest vs. lowest quartile of consumption, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.97] with a significant dose-response trend. While these findings do not support a relation between total fat intake and breast cancer risk, they do provide evidence for an inverse association between olive oil (and suggest one between monounsaturated fat) and risk of breast cancer.

9. Heart Disease
in a study of "Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics." by Turner R, Etienne N, Alonso MG, de Pascual-Teresa S, Minihane AM, Weinberg PD, Rimbach G. (Source from School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics (phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcoho) induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects.

10. Antimicrobial activity
According to the study of "Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish extra virgin olive oils." by Karaosmanoglu H, Soyer F, Ozen B, Tokatli F. (Source from Biotechnology and Bioengineering Program, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla-Izmir, Turkey.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that Antimicrobial activity was tested against three foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella Enteritidis. Although all EVOOs showed a bactericidal effect, the individual phenolic compounds demonstrated only slight antimicrobial activity. Moreover, refined oil samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. Among the phenolic compounds, cinnamic acid (2 mg/kg of oil) had the highest percent inhibition value with 0.25 log reduction against L. monocytogenes.

11. Candida albicans
In a study of " Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of quorum-sensing molecules of Candida albicans." by Gregus P, Vlcková H, Buchta V, Kestranek J, Krivcíková L, Nováková L. (Source from Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract thatA new analytical method for identification and quantification of biologically active substances farnesol and tyrosol using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in connection with tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The analytes were separated on Acquity BEH C18 analytical column using binary mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and formic acid 0.075% (75:25) at flow-rate 0.20 ml/min. SRM (selected reaction monitoring) mode was applied in order to ensure sufficient selectivity and sensitivity using the first most intensive transition as a quantitative (121>77 and 205>121) and second one for the confirmation purposes (121>93 and 205>109). The method was validated in terms of linearity (>0.9994), precision (0.5-3.8% RSD), accuracy (78.9-106.0%), LOD (limit of detection) and LOQ (limit of quantitation). The method can serve as an analytical tool for the detection and determination of quorum-sensing molecules in biological samples.

12. Kidney disease
According to the study of "Protective effect of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol against oxidative stress in kidney cells." by Loru D, Incani A, Deiana M, Corona G, Atzeri A, Melis MP, Rosa A, Dessì MA. (Source from Dipartimento di Biologia Sperimentale, Sezione di Patologia Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria SS 554, Km 4.5 09142 Monserrato (CA), Italy., researchers indicated in abstract that Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring the changes of the membrane lipid fraction. Hydroxytyrosol exerted a significant antioxidant action, inhibiting the production of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, major oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and thus protecting the cells from H2O2-induced damage. Tyrosol, instead, in this experimental model, did not exert any protective effect.

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