Monday, September 12, 2011

Phytochemicals: 10 Health Benefits of Phytosterols (Lipids)

Lipids, are a group of fat soluble phytochemicals included Phytosterols, Tocopherols and Omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids found abundantly in varieties of plant, containing,fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

Phytosterols are a subgroup of lipids, the steroid compounds similar to cholesterol in plant, Researchers have found more than 200 of them.

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1. Cholesterol
Phytosterols are best best known to have a property in lowering the blood cholesterol, according to the study of " Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to plant sterols and plant stanols and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 549, 550, 567, 713, 1234, 1235, 1466, 1634, 1984, 2909, 3140), and maintenance of normal prostate size and normal urination (ID 714, 1467, 1635) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", posted in EFSA Journak, researchers filed in summary that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of plant sterols and plant stanols and the reduction of blood cholesterol concentrations.

2. Coronary heart disease
In most case, if a substance have a good effect in lowering blood cholesterol concentration, it may also promote heart health. In a study of " Plant Sterols and Blood Cholesterol Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to plant sterols and lower/reduced blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061" from Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
Adopted on 11 July 2008, researchers indicated that Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) blood cholesterol is one recognised risk factor for
coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is an important cause of mortality and morbidity.
Lowering LDL-cholesterol by dietary intervention has been shown to reduce the risk of
coronary heart disease. The Panel considers that the claimed effect of lowering LDLcholesterol
is beneficial to human health.

3. Cancers
In a study of " Anticancer effects of phytosterols" by Woyengo TA, Ramprasath VR, Jones PJ. (Source from Department of Animal Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T6C5, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researcher found in abstract that Phytosterol consumption may also increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thereby reduce oxidative stress. In addition to altering cell-membrane structure and function, phytosterols probably promote apoptosis by lowering blood cholesterol levels. Moreover, consumption of phytosterols by healthy humans at the recommended level of 2 g per day does not cause any major health risks. In summary, mounting evidence supports a role for phytosterols in protecting against cancer development. Hence, phytosterols could be incorporated in diet not only to lower the cardiovascular disease risk, but also to potentially prevent cancer development.

4. Cytotoxic and Antioxidant effects
Phytoecdysteroids are phytochemicals including triterpene saponins, phytosterols, and phytoecdysteroid. In a study of "Phytoecdysteroids of Silene guntensis and their in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity" by Mamadalieva NZ, El-Readi MZ, Janibekov AA, Tahrani A, Wink M. (Source from Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances AS RUz, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), posted in PubMed, researchers filed in abstract that
4.1. Cytotoxic effects
The chloroform extract showed potent cytotoxic effects [IC50 values (26.58 +/- 1.88) microg/mL, (20.99 +/- 1.64) microg/mL, and (18.89 +/- 2.36) microg/mL, respectively].
4.2. Antioxidant effect
The new compound 1 was mildly cytotoxic compared to extracts [(127.97 +/- 11.34), (106.76 +/- 7.81), and (203.10 +/- 19.56) microg/mL, respectively]. Water and n-butanol extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities [IC50 values of (68.90 +/- 6.45) microg/mL and (69.12 +/- 5.85) microg/mL, respectively].

6. Dietary recommendations
According to the abstract of the study of " The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile." [Article in English, French] by Huang J, Frohlich J, Ignaszewski AP. (Source from Healthy Heart Program, St. Paul's Hospital-Burrard Building 180-1081, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that The consumption of nuts, a diet high in carbohydrates and protein, green tea, and red wine, as well as the supplementation with policosanol and red yeast rice extract, can be considered for improvement of the lipid profile, while the supplements of guggulipid, garlic, chromium, vitamin C, magnesium-pyridoxal-phosphate-glutamate, tocotrienols, and absorbitol cannot be recommended.

7. Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis
According to the study of " 24-Epibrassinolide, a Phytosterol from the Brassinosteroid Family, Protects Dopaminergic Cells against MPP-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis" by Carange J, Longpré F, Daoust B, Martinoli MG. (Source from Department of Biochemistry, Neurosciences Research Group, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada G9A 5H7), posted in PubMed, researchers found in abstract that
7.1. Oxidative Stress
Our results demonstrate that 24-Epi reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and modulates superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities.
7.2. Apoptosis
Finally, we determined that the antioxidative properties of 24-Epi lead to the inhibition of MPP(+)-induced apoptosis by reducing DNA fragmentation as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and cleaved caspase-3. This is the first time that the potent antioxidant and neuroprotective role of 24-Epi has been shown in a mammalian neuronal cell line.

9. Antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities
According to the abstract from the study of " Preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities of successive extracts of Crossandra infundibuliformis" by
Madhumitha G, Saral AM. (Source from Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that preliminary screening on the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, tannins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, oils and fats were carried out by phytochemical analysis and found that
9.1. Antibacterial activity
The successive extracts have an array of chemical constituents and the MIC values of antibacterial activity ranges from 0.007 8 to 0.015 0 μg/mL.
9.2. Antifungal and anticandidal activities
In case of antifungal and anticandidal activities the MIC values were between 0.125 and 0.250 μg/mL.

11. Etc.

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