Monday, September 5, 2011

Phytochemicals - 13 Health Benefits of Capsaicin

Phytochemicals Capsaicin can be found abundant in chili peppers, which are genus Capsicum, belonging to the family Solanaceae and has been used in herbal medicine to relieve muscle and arthritic pain over thousand of year. It is type of an irritant which can cause burning sensation of burning in any tissue if comes to contact, effecting mammals, excluding bird. According to the study of Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. by Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Roodenrys S, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Williams PG, Fazio VA, Inge KE. from the Source of National Centre of Excellence in Functional Foods, University of Wollongong, NSW, posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that these developments are well underway through evidence-based frameworks for substantiating health claims related to foods. At present, recommendations are warranted to support the consumption of foods rich in bioactive components, such as herbs and spices. With time, we can expect to see a greater body of scientific evidence supporting the benefits of herbs and spices in the overall maintenance of health and protection from disease.

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A. Post-herpetic neuralgia
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a chronically painful condition causing by shingles as a result of recurrence of the varicella-zoster virus which cause chicken pot initially.
In an article of "Which Treatment for Postherpetic Neuralgia?" (PLoS Med 2(7): e238. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020238) posted in Plos Science, The author wrote that Altogether, the authors conclude that the evidence base supports the first-line use of a tricyclic antidepressant for orally administered treatment of PHN, reserving the gabapentinoids for second-line use. Topical treatments, such as lidocaine or capsaicin, should be considered as first-line treatment if a patient falls into the “sensitised nociceptor” as opposed to “deafferentation” sub-group of PHN patients.

B. Alters the Excitability of the Human Jaw-stretch Reflex
In a study of "Capsaicin-induced Muscle Pain Alters the Excitability of the Human Jaw-stretch Reflex" by K. Wang1, L. Arendt-Nielsen, P. Svensson posted in JDS Journal Dental research, researchers found that in the present study, the amplitude of the short-latency reflex response was investigated with different stretch parameters before, during, and after capsaicin-induced muscle pain. The main finding was that acute muscle pain was associated with a velocity-dependent, but not length-dependent, increase in the amplitude of the jaw-stretch reflex.

C. Psoriasis
Capsaicin has been made into topical anesthetic to reduce itching and inflammation. In a study of A double-blind comparison of topical capsaicin and oral amitriptyline in painful diabetic neuropathy." by Biesbroeck R, Bril V, Hollander P, Kabadi U, Schwartz S, Singh SP, Ward WK, Bernstein JE. (Valley Endocrine Associates, Mesa, Arizona, USA.) posted in
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that No systemic side effects were observed in patients treated with topical capsaicin. Most patients receiving amitriptyline experienced at least one systemic side effect, ranging from somnolence (46%) to neuromuscular (23%) and cardiovascular (9%) adverse effects. Topically applied capsaicin is an equally effective but considerably safer alternative to amitriptyline for relief of the pain of diabetic neuropathy.

D. Temporarily pain reliever
Capsaicin can help to reduce pain sensation by temporarily depleting a neurotransmitter, substance P. In a study of "Temporomandibular joint nociception: effects of capsaicin on substance P-like immunoreactivity in the rabbit brain stem." by Kyrkanides S, Tallents RH, Macher DJ, Olschowka JA, Stevens SY. (Craniofacial Research Core, University of Rochester Eastman Dental Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14620, USA., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that A decrease in brain stem SP-like immunoreactivity occurred ipsilateral to capsaicin application. This reduction was primarily localized in brain stem regions that correspond to the trigeminal main sensory nucleus, as well as subnucleus oralis, interpolaris, and caudalis of the trigeminal spinal tract nucleus and concluded The present study revealed central nervous system changes following TMJ capsaicin treatment in rabbits.

E. Treating diabetes
In an article of "Breakthrough sheds light on cause of diabetes" at15 December 2006 by Alison Motluk and Linda Geddes, posred in NewScientist, the authirs reported that when the researchers examined the nerves of diabetes-prone mice and compared them with normal mice, they found that the nerves of diabetes-prone mice do not producing enough substance P. This causes islet cells to overproduce insulin, leading to insulin-resistance and eventually islet-cell death. It is at this point, says Dosch, that the immune system is called into action, triggering diabetes.

F. Weigh Loss
In a study of "Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects" by Manuela P. G. M. Lejeune, Eva M. R. Kovacs and Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga posted in British Journal of Nutrition, researchers found that
These results indicate that capsaicin treatment caused sustained fat oxidation during weight maintenance compared with placebo. However, capsaicin treatment has no limiting effect on 3-month weight regain after modest weight loss.

G. Prostate cancer cells
According to the study of "Capsaicin, a Component of Red Peppers, Inhibits the Growth of Androgen-Independent, p53 Mutant Prostate Cancer Cell by Akio Mori1, Sören Lehmann1, James O'Kelly1, Takashi Kumagai, Julian C. Desmond, Milena Pervan, William H. McBride, Masahiro Kizaki, and H. Phillip Koeffler posted in Cancer Researcher, researchers found that
1. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
2. Capsaicin modulates the levels of proteins associated with apoptosis and cell cycle in a time-dependent manner......

H. Knee Osteoarthritis
In a study of "Treatment Options in Knee Osteoarthritis" by Liana Fraenkel, MD, MPH; Sidney T. Bogardus, Jr, MD; John Concato, MD, MS, MPH; Dick R. Wittink, PhD, researchers found that Of the characteristics studied, variation in therisk of common adverse effects and gastrointestinal ulcer had the greatest impact on patients’ choice. Assuming patients are responsible for the full cost of their medications,over 40% prefer capsaicin. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors become patients’ preferred choice only if they are described as being 3 times as effective as capsaicin and
are covered by insurance. Nonselective NSAIDs are amongconclude that When evaluating multiple alternatives,many older patients with knee osteoarthritis are willing to forgo treatment effectiveness for a lower risk of adverseeffects. The patient treatment preferences derivedin this study conflict with the current widespread use of nonselective NSAIDs in older patients with arthritis.

I. Lung Cancer
In an article of "How spicy foods can kill cancers", posted in BBC news reported that The study by Nottingham University study features in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. showed that the family of molecules to which capsaicin belongs, the vanilloids, bind to proteins in the cancer cell mitochondria to trigger apoptosis, or cell death, without harming surrounding healthy cells.

Rheumatoid arthritis
In a study of "Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: a double-blind trial." byDeal CL, Schnitzer TJ, Lipstein E, Seibold JR, Stevens RM, Levy MD, Albert D, Renold F. ( Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that According to the global evaluations, 80% of the capsaicin-treated patients experienced a reduction in pain after two weeks of treatment. Transient burning was felt at the sites of drug application by 23 of the 52 capsaicin-treated patients; two patients withdrew from treatment because of this side effect. It is concluded that capsaicin cream is a safe and effective treatment for arthritis.

K. Relieve surgical neuropathic pain
In the trial of "Phase III placebo-controlled trial of capsaicin cream in the management of surgical neuropathic pain in cancer patients." by Ellison N, Loprinzi CL, Kugler J, Hatfield AK, Miser A, Sloan JA, Wender DB, Rowland KM, Molina R, Cascino TL, Vukov AM, Dhaliwal HS, Ghosh C. (Geisinger Clinical Oncology Program, Danville, PA, USA.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that a topical capsaicin cream decreases postsurgical neuropathic pain and, despite some toxicities, is preferred by patients over a placebo by a three-to-one margin among those expressing a preference.

L. Cluster headaches
In a study of Preventative effect of repeated nasal applications of capsaicin in cluster headache.
Fusco BM, Marabini S, Maggi CA, Fiore G, Geppetti P/ (Institute of Internal Medicine VI, University La Sapienza Rome, Italy.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that The efficacy of repeated nasal applications of capsaicin in cluster headache is congruent with previous reports on the therapeutic effect of capsaicin in other pain syndromes (post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia) and supports the use of the drug to produce a selective analgesia.

M. Pruritus ani
Pruritus ani is defined as a condition of irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum. In a study of "Topical capsaicin--a novel and effective treatment for idiopathic intractable pruritus ani: a randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study." by Lysy J, Sistiery-Ittah M, Israelit Y, Shmueli A, Strauss-Liviatan N, Mindrul V, Keret D, Goldin E.(Department of Gastroenterology, Hadassah University Hospital, Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel, posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Healthm researchers found that Thirty one of 44 patients experienced relief during capsaicin treatment periods and did not respond to menthol; all patients not responding to capsaicin also failed on menthol (p<0.0001). In 13 patients, treatment with capsaicin was unsuccessful: eight patients did not respond to capsaicin treatment, one responded equally to capsaicin and placebo, and four others dropped out because of side effects. During the follow up period (mean 10.9 (SD 5.8) months), 29 "responders" needed a mean application of capsaicin every day (1.6 (SD 1.2); range 0.5-7 days) to remain symptom free (or nearly symptom free).

N. Etc.

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