Monday, September 5, 2011

Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Allyl sulfides

Garlic has been used in traditional Chinese and herbal medicine over thousands of year as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent and in treating other conditions such as parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, low energy, etc. In many studies, researchers found that Allyl sulfides, a phytochemical in garlic has been demonstrated effectively in treating certain diseases.

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A. Bone health
Allyl sulfides can be beneficial in preventing bone loss for women with osteoporosis and in thw stage of perimenopause, menopause and postmenopause.
In a study of "Prevention of bone loss by oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis." by Mukherjee M, Das AS, Mitra S, Mitra C. (Department of Physiology, Presidency College, Kolkata-700073, India.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Garlic oil extract supplementation, apart from its unique influence in lowering blood cholesterol, could also prevent ovariectomy-induced rise in all the above-mentioned marker changes. The results of this study emphasize that oil extract of garlic possibly has a positive role in suppressing ovariectomy-induced bone resorption.

B. Allyl sulfides and cancers
1. In response to Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), extracted from crushed garlic by steam-distillation, have been reported to provide the anticancer activity in several cancer types.
In a study of "Allyl Sulfides Inhibit Cell Growth of Skin Cancer Cells through Induction of DNA Damage Mediated G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis" by Hsiao−Chi Wang, Jen-Hung Yang, Shu-Chen Hsieh and Lee-Yan Sheen, researchers indicated that DATS increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced cytosolic Ca2+ mobilization, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Western blot results showed the concordance for the expression of molecules involved in G2/M arrest and apoptosis observed by cell cycle and cell viability analysis. Moreover, we detected the activation of p53 pathway in response to the oxidative DNA damage. DATS also displayed selective target of growth inhibition between skin cancer cells and normal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Finally, researchers concluded that taken together, these results suggest that DATS is a potential anticancer compound for skin cancer.
(Publication Date (Web): May 11, 2010 Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society)

C. Irregular cells growth
In a study of "Allyl sulfides modify cell growth." by Knowles LM, Milner JA. In response to Extensive evidence points to the ability of allyl sulfides from garlic to suppress tumor proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. researchers found that Allyl sulfides are also recognized for their ability to suppress cellular proliferation by blocking cells in the G2/M phase and by the induction of apoptosis. This increase in the G2/M and apoptotic cell populations correlates with depressed p34cdc2 kinase activity, increased histone acetylation, increased intracellular calcium and elevated cellular peroxide production. While impressive pre-clinical data exist about the antineoplastic effects of allyl sulfur compounds, considerably more attention needs to be given to their effects in humans. The composition of the entire diet and a host of genetic/epigenetic factors will likely determine the true benefits that might arise from allyl sulfur compounds from garlic and other Allium foods.
(Posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health)

Radical molecules
In a study of The effects of allyl sulfides on the induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and liver injury by carbon tetrachloride. Purchase T. Fukao , T. Hosono , S. Misawa , T. Seki Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author and T. Ariga, researchers found that, the
sulfides affected both phase I and phase II enzymes, the former being stimulated by the monosulfide only and the latter, strongly by the trisulfide and weakly by the disulfide. Therefore, the polysulfide DATS may be one of the important factors in garlic oil that protects our body against the injury caused by radical molecules encountered in daily life.
(Posted in Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2004, Pages 743-749)

Immune system
According to the article of "GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB" by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that human studies confirm immune stimulation by garlic. Subjects receiving aged garlic extract at 1800 mg a day for three weeks showed a 155.5% increase in natural killer immune cell activity that kills invaders and cancer cells. Other subjects receiving large amounts of fresh garlic of 35g a day, equivalent to 10 cloves, showed an increase of 139.9%. In six weeks, patients with AIDS receiving aged garlic extract showed an enhancement of natural killer cells from a seriously low level to a normal level.

E. N
eurological disease
According to the study of " Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract" by Carmia Borek, posted in (Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1010S-1015S.)© 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, researcher indicated that the studies suggest that AGE may have antiaging effects and help in preventing age-related deterioration of brain function that are linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

F. Antioxidant against oxidation
According to the study of " Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract" by Carmia Borek, posted in (Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1010S-1015S.)© 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, researcher found that AGE contains a wide range of antioxidants that can act in synergistic or additive fashion and protect cells against oxidative damage, thus helping to lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease and protect against toxic, tissue-damaging effects of ROS-producing radiation, including UV light, drugs used in therapy and chemicals in the environment and industry.

G. Cholesterol, heart disease and stroke
In an article of "GARLICTHE BOUNTIFUL BULB" by Carmia Borek, Ph.D. posted in Life extension magazine, the author indicated that in the past 15 years, garlic supplementation studies have concentrated on the bulb's effects in reducing blood cholesterol and triglycerides (the form in which fat is transported in the blood). All studies did not agree with one another, given differences in the kind of garlic preparation, quality of standardization, doses and periods of treatment. But most findings showed that garlic slightly lowered blood cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides with a consistent lowering of blood lipids seen in studies that used aged garlic extract as the supplement. For example, while a University of Oxford study showed that garlic powder, given to patients at 900 mg a day for six months, had no protective effects and did not lower cholesterol levels, a study at East Carolina University found that aged garlic extract given at 2.4-4.8 gm a day, for six months, lowered cholesterol by 5-7%, and reduced LDL, triglycerides and blood pressure in men with high cholesterol.

H. Blood circulation
In an article of "Onions, Garlic, and Scallions... Oh My!" By Dr. Leo Galland, M.D., and Jonathan Galland", posted in the Chritian Broacasting Network, the authors wrote that scientists believe the components in onions, garlic, and scallions called allyl sulfides and bioflavonoids are key to their powerful health benefits. For cardiovascular health, clinical experiments have shown regular consumption of garlic may help improve circulation and help decrease calcium deposits and the size of arterial plaque in coronary arteries. As for detoxification, one study found that eating fresh garlic and onions each day can help remove toxins from the body.

I. Anticoagulation
In a study of "Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products." by Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG. posted in
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed.

J. High blood pressure
According to the study of "Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis." by Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, Fakler P, Sullivan T. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Eleven of 25 studies included in the systematic review were suitable for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of all studies showed a mean decrease of 4.6 +/- 2.8 mm Hg for SBP in the garlic group compared to placebo (n = 10; p = 0.001), while the mean decrease in the hypertensive subgroup was 8.4 +/- 2.8 mm Hg for SBP (n = 4; p < 0.001), and 7.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg for DBP (n = 3; p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed a significant association between blood pressure at the start of the intervention and the level of blood pressure reduction (SBP: R = 0.057; p = 0.03; DBP: R = -0.315; p = 0.02), and concluded that Our meta-analysis suggests that garlic preparations are superior to placebo in reducing blood pressure in individuals with hypertension.

K. Arteriosclerosis
In a study of "Effect of garlic feeding on regression of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits." by Bordia A, Verma SK. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health., researchers found that there was an increase in HDL levels in the garlic fed groups. Cholesterol feeding resulted in 80.9% atheromatous involvement of aortic surface in Group I. This remained almost the same (71.1%) after 9 months of stock feeding (Group II) while in the garlic fed group only 30.4% of the aortic surface had lesions. Correspondingly, the aortic lipid content of garlic fed animals was reduced by 72%, while in the control group there was no significant reduction. The data suggests that cholesterol is depleted from experimentally induces atherosclerosis by garlic administration.

L. Detoxification
Looking for a natural detox? Allyl Sulfides declare war against toxins. They do this by stimulating the enzymes that eliminate toxins from the body. These enzymes are located in the digestive system. They are part of the normal digestive process. The Allyl Sulfides in onions and garlic simply encourage them to work harder and faster to eliminate toxins.

M. Antidiabetic, Antibiotic, Hypocholesterolaemic, Fibrinolytic
In a study of "Therapeutic values of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.)." by
Augusti KT.(Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, India., researchers found that They possess antidiabetic, antibiotic, hypocholesterolaemic, fibrinolytic and various other biological actions. In addition to free sulfoxides in alliums, there are nonvolatile sulfur-containing peptides and proteins which possess various activities and thus make these vegetables as an important source of therapeutic agents. As allyl and related sulfoxides are inhibiting thiol group enzymes, alliums are to be used only in limited quantities.

N. Antibacterial
According to "Allicin from fresh Garlic Nature’s Original Antimicrobial", The Englishman’s Doctor (Harrington, 1609), the author indicated that the antibacterial properties of crushed garlic have been known for a long time. Various garlic preparations have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including species of Escherichia, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Bacillus, and C!ostridium.

O. Etc.

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