Thursday, September 8, 2011

Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Flavonoids

Flavonoids also so known as Vitamin P and Citrin is defined as a group of water-soluble phytonutrients with yellow pigments having a structure similar to flavones found abundantly in celery and parsley. In study of "Advances in flavonoid research since 1992." by Harborne JB, Williams CA. (Source from Department of Botany, School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, UK.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
, the researchers indicated that Advances in understanding the part played by flavonoids in warding off microbial infection and protecting plants from herbivory are described. The biological properties of flavonoids are considered in an evaluation of the medicinal and nutritional values of these compounds.

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1. Antioxidant activity
In a study of "Acute and chronic stress-induced oxidative gastrointestinal injury in rats, and the protective ability of a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract" by Manashi Bagchi Ph.D., Mark Milnes B.S., Casey Williams B.S., Jaya Balmoori M.S., Xumei Ye B.S., Sidney Stohs Ph.D. and Debasis Bagchi Ph.D. (Creighton University School of Pharmacy & Allied Health Professions, Omaha, NE 68178, USA) posted in, researchers found that chronic stress increased lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and membrane microviscosity by 2.9-, 3.3- and 6.3- fold, respectively, in the gastric mucosa, and 3.3-, 4.2- and 9.3-fold, respectively, in the intestinal mucosa. GSPE decreased chronic stress-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and membrane microviscosity by 23%, 21% and 25%, respectively, in the gastric mucosa, and by 26%, 26% and 25%, respectively, in the intestinal mucosa. These results demonstrate that acute stress and chronic stress can induce gastrointestinal oxidative stress and mucosal injury through enhanced production of ROS, and that GSPE provides significant protection against gastrointestinal oxidative stress and mucosal injury by scavenging these ROS.

2. Anti-cancer activity
In a study of " Dietary agents in cancer prevention: flavonoids and isoflavonoids." by Birt DF, Hendrich S, Wang W (Source from Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 2312 Food Sciences Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers indicated that Some information is available on how these factors influence isoflavone bioavailability, but the information on flavones is more limited. Many mechanisms of action have been identified for isoflavone/flavone prevention of cancer, including estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity, antiproliferation, induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, prevention of oxidation, induction of detoxification enzymes, regulation of the host immune system, and changes in cellular signaling. It is expected that some combination of these mechanisms will be found to be responsible for cancer prevention by these compounds. Compelling data suggest that flavones and isoflavones contribute to cancer prevention; however, further investigations will be required to clarify the nature of the impact and interactions between these bioactive constituents and other dietary components.

3. Neonatal acute leukemia
In a study of " Rearrangement of the MLL Gene in Acute Lymphoblastic and Acute Myeloid Leukemias with 11q23 Chromosomal Translocations" byMichael J. Thirman, Heidi J. Gill, Robert C. Burnett, David Mbangkollo, Norah R. McCabe, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Sheryl Ziemin-van der Poel, Yasuhiko Kaneko, Rodman Morgan, Avery A. Sandberg, R.S.K. Chaganti, Richard A. Larson, Michelle M. Le Beau, Manuel O. Diaz, and Janet D. Rowley, posted in the new England journal of medicine, researchers concluded that MLL gene rearrangements were detected with a single probe and a single restriction-enzyme digest in all DNA samples from patients with the common 11q23 translocations as well as in 16 patients or cell lines with other 11q23 anomalies. The ability to detect an MLL gene rearrangement rapidly and reliably, especially in patients with limited material for cytogenetic analysis, should make it possible to identify patients who have a poor prognosis and therefore require aggressive chemotherapy or marrow transplantation.

4. Improve blood flow
In a study of " Structural requirements of flavonoids for increment of ocular blood flow in the rabbit and retinal function recovery in rat eyes." by Park YH, Xu XR, Chiou GC. (Source from Institute of Ocular Pharmacology and Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, College Station, TX, USA.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers indicated that The presence of OH groups at certain positions and the double bond at C2-C3 in the flavonoid molecules, which produces lipophilic action, can affect the increment on ocular blood flow and retinal function recovery. O-methylation can increase ocular blood flow and retinal function recovery as well.

5. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus functions
In a study of Flavonoids in food and their health benefits.' by Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomás-Barberán FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, Chen SS.(Source from South China Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou ReYiJu 510650, The People's Reptublic of China.)
posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers indicated that Nevertheless, research on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans is expanding rapidly. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free-radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, and anticancer activity, while some flavonoids exhibit potential for anti-human immunodeficiency virus functions.

6. Anti atherosclerotic effects
According to" Chapter 13. Antiatherosclerotic Effects of Dietary Flavonoids: Insight into their Molecular Action Mechanism at the Target Site" by Celestino Santos-Buelga Professor, Maria Teresa Escribano-Bailon Lecturer, Vincenzo Lattanzio Professor, Junji Terao, Kaeko Murota, Yoshichika Kawa, the author wrote that activated macrophages as potential targets of dietary flavonoids as antiatherosclerotic factors.

7. Anti platelet aggregation
In a study of "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by some flavonoids." by Tzeng SH, Ko WC, Ko FN, Teng CM. (Source from Department of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical College, Taiwan.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers indicated that The thromboxane B2 formations were also inhibited by flavonoids in platelets challenged with arachidonic acid. Fisetin, kaempferol, morin and quercetin antagonized the aggregation of washed platelets induced by U46619, a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin endoperoxides mimetic receptor agonist. In human platelet-rich plasma, quercetin prevented the secondary aggregation and blocked ATP release from platelets induced by epinephrine or ADP. These results demonstrate that the major antiplatelet effect of flavonoids tested may be due to both the inhibition of thromboxane formation and thromboxane receptor antagonism.

8. Anti thrombogenic effects
In a study of "Effect of flavonoids on survival time of rats fed thrombogenic or atherogenic regimens by R.C. Robbins (Food Technology and Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. (U.S.A.)),
Received 9 September 1965.
Available online 18 July 2008, researchers indicated that Based on the evidence that all flavonoids tested showed activity on one or both diets, it was postulated that flavonoids in addition to any activity related to specific groups on the molecule, exert action due to the presence in the blood of a molecule of certain configuration and molecular weight. In this respect they may have an effect similar to low molecular weight dextrans which increase suspension stability of blood, deaggregate blood cells and improve flow. The flavonoids, similar to dextrans, may show specific effects depending on a number of parameters.

9. Anti ulcer effect
In a study of "[Studies on the anti-ulcer effects of isoprenyl flavonoids (1). The anti-ulcer effects of isoprenyl chalcone extracted from Sophora subprostrata (author's transl)].[Article in Japanese] by Sasajima M, Nakane S, Saziki R, Saotome H, Hatayama K, Kyogoku K, Tanaka I., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that The effect of sophoradin was examined on various secretagogues which induced gastric secretions in rats with acute fistula. Sophoradin showed a tendency to inhibit tetragastrin- and insulin-induced gastric acid secretion, but there were no effects on methacholine- and histamine-induced secretions. These results suggest that sophoradin may have marked anti-ulcer and inhibitory effects on gastric secretion.

10. Anti viral effects
According to the study of " Antiviral effect of flavonoids on human viruses. by Kaul TN, Middleton E Jr, Ogra PL, posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Catechin inhibited the infectivity but not the replication of RSV and HSV-1 and had negligible effects on the other viruses. Naringin had no effect on either the infectivity or the replication of any of the viruses studied. Thus, naturally occurring flavonoids possess a variable spectrum of antiviral activity against certain RNA (RSV, Pf-3, polio) and DNA (HSV-1) viruses acting to inhibit infectivity and/or replication

11. Anti Arthritis effects
According to the study of " Anti-inflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin, quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat." by Guardia T, Rotelli AE, Juarez AO, Pelzer LE., (Source from Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that The anti-inflammatory activities of three flavonoids were investigated in rats using the Mizushima et al. model of acute and chronic inflammation. Intraperitoneal administration of rutin, quercetin (flavonols) and hesperidin (flavanone), given at daily doses equivalent to 80 mg/kg, inhibited both acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation. Rutin was the most active in the chronic phase.

12. Anti osteoporotic and inflammatory effects

In a sudy of Flavonoids: old and new aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs." by Di Carlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F. (Sourc from Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.), potsed in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that flavonoids are capable of modulating the activity of enzymes and affect the behaviour of many cell systems, suggesting that the compounds may possess significant antihepatotoxic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiosteoporotic and even antitumor activities. This review summarizes available data on these beneficial effects of flavonoids.

13. Anti Arthritis effects
In a study of "Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of total flavonoids of the roots of Sophora flavescens." by Jin JH, Kim JS, Kang SS, Son KH, Chang HW, Kim HP. (Source from College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Republic of Korea., researchers concluded that Our results suggest that PFS inhibits chronic inflammatory response and the inhibition of proinflammatory molecules such as COX-2, iNOS and IL-6 may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Overall, these results indicate that PFS from Sophora flavescens may have the potential for treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.

14. Anti diarrheal and anti bacteriarial effects
In a reseach of "Assessment of the Antibacterial Activity and the Antidiarrheal Function of Flavonoids from Bayberry Fruit" by Wei Rong Yao*, He Ya Wang, Shi Tao Wang, Shi Lei Sun, Jie Zhou, and Yun Yun Luan (State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China), posted in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, in abstract, researchers wrote that The active compounds showed green or blue fluorescence under UV light using the bioautography method and were purified using a polyamide column. The fraction F1 with the most activity was comprised of flavonoids, which included cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, myricetin deoxyhexoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin deoxyhexoside, and it also possessed an antidiarrheal activity (p < 0.10) at 80 mg/kg in mice. These findings provide scientific evidence for the antidiarrheal function of bayberry

15. Chronic Diseases (Asthma, type 2 diabetes, prostate and lung cancer cancer)
In a study of "Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases.
Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Järvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliövaara M, Reunanen A, Hakulinen T, Aromaa A.(Source fromNational Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, reseachers found that Men with higher quercetin intakes had a lower lung cancer incidence (0.42; 0.25, 0.72; P = 0.001), and men with higher myricetin intakes had a lower prostate cancer risk (0.43; 0.22, 0.86; P = 0.002). Asthma incidence was lower at higher quercetin (0.76; 0.56, 1.01; P = 0.005), naringenin (0.69; 0.50, 0.94; P = 0.06), and hesperetin (0.64; 0.46, 0.88; P = 0.03) intakes. A trend toward a reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes was associated with higher quercetin (0.81; 0.64, 1.02; P = 0.07) and myricetin (0.79; 0.62, 1.00; P = 0.07) intakes. and concluded that The risk of some chronic diseases may be lower at higher dietary flavonoid intakes.

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