Friday, September 9, 2011

Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Isoflavones

Isoflavone is the type of phytochemical compound with capability of exerting estrogen-like effects found exclusively in the family of bean and legumes. it is also popular for it effects in fighting against forming of free radicals as an antioxidant.

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1. Estrogenic effects
In the evaluation of " Evaluation of the Estrogenic Effects of Legume Extracts Containing Phytoestrogens" by Stephen M. Boué,*† Thomas E. Wiese,‡ Suzanne Nehls,‡ Matthew E. Burow,§# Steven Elliott,§# Carol H. Carter-Wientjes,† Betty Y. Shih,† John A. McLachlan,# and Thomas E. Cleveland, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, Louisiana 70179; College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana 70125; Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Tulane Cancer Center, and Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112. posted in Journal of Agricutural and Food Chemitry, researchers found that all seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERβ. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

2. Antioxidants
in a study of "
Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein." by
Wei H, Bowen R, Cai Q, Barnes S, Wang Y. (Source from Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294.), posted by US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that These results suggest that the antioxidant properties of isoflavones are structurally related and the hydroxy group at Position 4' is crucial in both systems. Dietary administration of 250 ppm genistein for 30 days significantly enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the skin and small intestine of mice. Further studies show that genistein significantly inhibits TPA-induced proto-oncogene expression (c-fos) in mouse skin in a dose-dependent manner. In a two-stage skin carcinogenesis study, low levels of genistein (1 and 5 mumol) significantly prolong tumor latency and decrease tumor multiplicity by approximately 50%. We conclude that genistein's antioxidant properties and antiproliferative effects may be responsible for its anticarcinogenic effect. Its high content in soybeans and relatively high bioavailability favor genistein as a promising candidate for the prevention of human cancers.

3. Atherosclerosis
According to the study of " Isoflavone Soy Protein Supplementation and Atherosclerosis Progression in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial." by Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Kono N, Azen SP, Shoupe D, Hwang-Levine J, Petitti D, Whitfield-Maxwell L, Yan M, Franke AA, Selzer RH; for the Women's Isoflavone Soy Health Research Group. (Source from the Atherosclerosis Research Unit.) posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that ISP supplementation did not significantly reduce subclinical atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis suggests that ISP supplementation may reduce subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy young (median age, 53 years) women at low-risk for cardiovascular disease who were <5 years postmenopausal. These first trial results of their kind warrant further investigation.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00118846.

4. Bone Mineral Density
In a study of " Beneficial effect of soy isoflavones on bone mineral content was modified by years since menopause, body weight, and calcium intake: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial." by Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, Ho SS, Woo JL. (Source from department of Community and Family Medicine, School of Pharmacy, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that both univariate and multivariate analyses observed significant favorable effect of isoflavone supplementation on rates of change in BMC at the total hip and trochanter among later postmenopausal women (> 4 y), in women with lower BW (< or =median, 55.5 kg), or among women with lower level of calcium intake (< or =median, 1095 mg/d), and conclude that the independent effect of soy on the maintenance of hip BMC is more marked in women in later menopause or those with lower BW or calcium intake.

5. Breast Cancer (Premenopausal)
In a study of " Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women" , by A Cassidy, S Bingham and KD Setchell (Source from Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK. ) posted in The Americal Journal Clinical Nutrition, researchers indicated that these effects are presumed to be due to nonsteroidal estrogens of the isoflavone class, which behave as partial estrogen agonists/antagonists. The responses to soy protein are potentially beneficial with respect to risk factors for breast cancer and may in part explain the low incidence of breast cancer and its correlation with a high soy intake in Japanese and Chinese women.

6. Breast Cancer (Postmenopausal)
In a study of "Breast and Uterine Effects of Soy Isoflavones and Conjugated Equine Estrogens in Postmenopausal Female Monkey" by Charles E. Wood, Thomas C. Register, Mary S. Anthony, Nancy D. Kock and J. Mark Cline posted in The Journal of Clinical of Edocrinology and Metabolism, researchers found that these findings suggest that high dietary levels of soy isoflavones do not stimulate breast or uterine proliferation in postmenopausal monkeys and may contribute to an estrogen profile associated with reduced breast cancer risk.

7. Digestive system
According to the study of " Protective effect of soy isoflavone genistein on ischemia-reperfusion in the rat small intestine." by Sato Y, Itagaki S, Oikawa S, Ogura J, Kobayashi M, Hirano T, Sugawara M, Iseki K. (Source from Division of Pharmasciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University.) posted in PubMed, researchers that genistein, which has combined antioxidant activity from radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and chain-breaking effects, exhibits a protective effect on intestinal I/R injury. The results suggest that genistein, a soy isoflavone, has the possibility as a new nutrient formula of enteral feeding.

8. Prostate Cancer
In a study of " Dietary isoflavones may protect against prostate cancer in Japanese men" byNagata Y, Sonoda T, Mori M, Miyanaga N, Okumura K, Goto K, Naito S, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y, Takahashi A, Tsukamoto T, Akaza H. (Source from Department of Public Health, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8556, Japan.) posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that On the other hand, isoflavone significantly decreased the risk of prostate cancer regardless of adjustment by PUFA, (n-6) fatty acids or magnesium. In conclusion, our findings indicate that isoflavones might be an effective dietary protective factor against prostate cancer in Japanese men.

9. Menopause Symptoms
In a study of " The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women." by Lipovac M, Chedraui P, Gruenhut C, Gocan A, Kurz C, Neuber B, Imhof M. (Source from Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Teaching Hospital Korneuburg , Austria.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that These values were also significantly lower than those observed in Group A after placebo phase. No side effects were encountered after treatment with the active compound or placebo. Conclusion. Red clover isoflavone supplementation was more effective than placebo in reducing daily vasomotor frequency and overall menopausal intensity in postmenopausal women.

10. Cognitive Ability
In a study of " Effect of soybean isoflavones on the cognitive performance of mice deprived of sleeping for 72h. [Article in Chinese] by Qin F, Zhang J, Wang T, Tong J. (Source from Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China. qinfenju@126.com) posted in PubMed, researchers found that The cognitive ability of 72h SD female mice could be improved by SIF, the mechanism of which might be involved in increasing antioxidant function, decreasing the damage of free radicals on cranial nerves and adjusting the neuron transmitter of cerebra.

11. Colon Cancer
In a study of " Environmental Influences on Isoflavones and Saponins in Soybeans and Their Role in Colon Cancer" byRuth S. MacDonald, JuYuan Guo, Jonathan Copeland, Jimmy D. Browning, Jr, David Sleper, George E. Rottinghaus and Mark A. Berhow, posted in The Journal of Nutrition, researchers found that soy isoflavones and saponins are likely to be protective of colon cancer and to be well tolerated. Continuing studies will explore the cancer-protective effects of these compounds in animal models.

12. Against Oxidative DNA Damage
in a study of " Effects of a soy milk supplement on plasma cholesterol levels and oxidative DNA damage in men--a pilot study." by Mitchell JH, Collins AR. (Source from Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, UK-Aberdeen, Great Britain. jhm@rri.sari.ac.uk) posted in PubMed, researchers found that a 4 week soy milk supplementation in healthy volunteers does not alter serum cholesterol levels but can have a protective effect against oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes.

13. Hyperlipidemia
In a study of Intake of Soy Products Is Associated with Better Plasma Lipid Profiles in the Hong Kong Chinese Population" bySuzanne C. Ho, Jean L. F. Woo, Sophie S. F. Leung, Aprille L. K.Sham, T. H. Lam and E. D. Janus posted in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers found that
Higher soy intake seemed to be related to a better plasma lipid profile in men and in younger women, but more epidemiological studies and controlled clinical trials in this setting would help to confirm the optimal amount required for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia.

14. Aging Skin
In a study of "GENISTEIN AGLYCONE, A SOY-DERIVED ISOFLAVONE, IMPROVES SKIN CHANGES INDUCED BY OVARIECTOMY IN RATS." by Polito F, Marini H, Bitto A, Irrera N, Vaccaro M, Adamo EB, Micali A, Squadrito F, Minutoli L, Altavilla D. (Source from Department of Biochemical, Physiological and Nutritional Sciences, Section of Physiology and Human Nutrition, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, Department of Territorial Social Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Messina, Department of Biomorphology and Biotechnologies, University of Messina, Messina, Italy._ posted in PubMed, researchers found that these results suggest that genistein aglycone might be a reliable alternative therapy for the management of age-related skin changes among postmenopausal women.

15. Diabetes
in a sudy of " Novel soy germ pasta improves endothelial function, blood pressure, and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes." by Clerici C, Nardi E, Battezzati PM, Asciutti S, Castellani D, Corazzi N, Giuliano V, Gizzi S, Perriello G, Di Matteo G, Galli F, Setchell KD. (Source from Corresponding author: Kenneth D.R. Setchell, kenneth.setchell@cchmc.org.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Isoflavone-enriched pasta significantly improved arterial stiffness (P = 0.005) and reduced systolic (P = 0.026) and diastolic (P = 0.017) blood pressures. Plasma TAC increased (P = 0.0002), oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased (P = 0.009), 8-iso-PGF2α decreased (P = 0.001), GSH levels increased (P = 0.0003), and homocysteine decreased (P = 0.009) consistent with a reduction in oxidative stress. No significant changes were observed with conventional pasta and concluded that Pasta enriched with biologically active isoflavone aglycons improved endothelial function and had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk markers in patients with T2D.

16. Want your baby girl be a Tomboy
According to the study of " Early Life Soy Exposure and Gender-Role Play Behavior in Children." by Adgent M, Daniels JL, Edwards L, Siega-Riz AM, Rogan WJ. posted in PubMed, researchers found that Early infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (versus early formula) feeding was associated with higher (more masculine) PSAI scores in girls (β = 2.66, 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12), but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores among boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months, and concluded that although not consistent throughout childhood, early life soy exposure was associated with masculinized play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys.

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