Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Phytochemicals: 12 Health Benefits of Carotenoids

Carotenoids are fat soluble organic pigments of plants such as algae, some bacteria, and fungus. It generally cannot be manufactured by animals but have to acquired plants. It is said that consuming caretrnoids can optimize your health against many types of chronic illness as it acts as antioxidant fighting against foreigner invasion such as bacteria and virus and promotes the immune system guarding our body from oxidation causes of irregular cells growth, such as tumors. In a study of "Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species." by
Diplock AT, Charleux JL, Crozier-Willi G, Kok FJ, Rice-Evans C, Roberfroid M, Stahl W, Viña-Ribes J. (Source from International Antioxidant Research Centre, UMDS, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.") posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, as the paper assesses critically the science base that underpins the argument that oxidative damage is a significant causative factor in the development of human diseases and that antioxidants are capable of preventing or ameliorating these disease processes. You can find the result at this link

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

1. Fertility enhancer
In a study of "Dietary carotenoid availability, sexual signalling and functional fertility in sticklebacks" by Thomas W. Pike, Jonathan D. Blount, Jan Lindström1 and Neil B. Metcalfe, posted in Biological Letter, researchers found that these data provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that dietary access to carotenoids influences fertilization success, and suggest that females could use a male's nuptial coloration as an indicator of his functional fertility.

2. Enhances ovaries function and progesterone synthesis
In a study of "Short-term intake of β-carotene-supplemented diets enhances ovarian function and progesterone synthesis in goats" by G. Arellano-Rodriguez, C. A. Meza-Herrera, R. Rodriguez-Martinez, R. Dionisio-Tapia, D. M. Hallford, M. Mellado, A. Gonzalez-Bulnes posted in Wiley Online Library, researchers found that the results suggest a higher efficiency within the cellular-enzymatic groups defining the steroidogenic pathways in the β-carotene-supplemented goats, generating a larger P4 synthesis. The last is essential for ovulation of healthy oocytes, maintenance of uterine quiescence, nourishment and survival of the embryo around implantation; all of them of paramount significance during the maternal recognition of pregnancy process.

3. Prevent age-related macular degeneration
In a study of A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss" by AREDS report no. 8 Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that the only statistically significant reduction in rates of at least moderate visual acuity loss occurred in persons assigned to receive antioxidants plus zinc (OR, 0.73; 99% CI, 0.54-0.99). No statistically significant serious adverse effect was associated with any of the formulations.

4. Heart disease
In a study of β-Carotene, Carotenoids and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease by Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Posted in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers found that alternatively, low serum carotenoid levels may reflect either increased lipoprotein density or the presence of inflammation, both factors emerging as important novel risk factors for coronary heart disease. Whereas the trial results support no preventive role for β-carotene, the epidemiologic evidence does generally support the idea that a diet rich in high carotenoid foods is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.

Immune system
In a study of `Carotenoid Action on the Immune Response`by Boon P. Chew and Jean Soon Park (Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6351), posted in The Journal of Nutrition, researchers indicated that the action of carotenoids on immune response hangs in a delicate balance with the intra- and extracellular milieu, the outcome of which depends not only on the type and concentration of the carotenoid but also on the cell type and animal species involved. Even though studies to date have provided evidence for a specific action of carotenoids, much has yet to be done to truly understand their molecular action. The use of molecular bioscience technics can provide the necessary research tool to probe into the complex interaction of carotenoids with cell systems.

6. Breast cancer
In a study of `Intake of specific carotenoids and essential fatty acids and breast cancer risk in Montreal, Canada`by André Nkondjock and Parviz Ghadirian, posted in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 5, 857-864, May 2004, researcher found that these findings suggest that the combined high intake of total carotenoids and docosahexaenoic acid may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

7. Lung cancer
In a study of `Role of Various Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Prevention` Paul Knekt, Ritva Järvinen, Lyly Teppo, Arpo Aromaa, Ritva Seppänen (Affiliations of authors: P. Knekt, A. Aromaa, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland; R. Järvinen, University of Kuopio, Finland; L. Teppo, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki; R. Seppänen, Social Insurance Institution, Turku, Finland.), posted in Biology Online, researchers concluded that n summary, this study suggests that {alpha}-carotene rather than ß-carotene may be a substance associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer. The possibility, however, remains that this association reflects the effect of some other unidentified substance in plant foods or that it is due to incomplete control for smoking habits or to some other factors associated with intake of fruits and vegetables. Further observational studies analyzing the effects of {alpha}-carotene and other carotenoids on lung cancer incidence are therefore warranted.

8. Cervical cancer
In a study of `Dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer.` by Ghosh C, Baker JA, Moysich KB, Rivera R, Brasure JR, McCann SE.( Source of Department of Mathematics, State University of New York College at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14222, USA. Posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Significant reductions in risk of approximately 40-60% were observed for women in the highest vs. lowest tertiles of dietary fiber (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94), vitamin C (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.33-0.80), vitamin E (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.27-0.72), vitamin A (OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.30-0.73), alpha-carotene (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.63), beta-carotene (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.29-0.68), lutein (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.33-0.79), folate (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.34-0.88), and total fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.34-0.77). Our findings suggest that a diet rich in plant-based nutrients may be important in reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

9. Carotenoids and DNA
In a study of `Evidence that dietary supplementation with carotenoids and carotenoid-rich foods modulates the DNA damage : repair balance in human lymphocytes` by Siaˆn B. Astley, Ruan M. Elliott, David B. Archer and Susan Southon posted in British Journal of Nutrition (2004), researchers concluded that in summary, dietary supplementation with mixed carotene capsules, at a level achievable by dietary manipulation alone without the use of isolates, led to an enhancement of cellular recovery from oxidative challenge, measured as the disappearance rate of H2O2-induced DNA SSB, in PBL. This effect was most consistent for the mixed carotenoid
intervention promoting cellular SSB repair processes. Carotenoid-rich whole foods did not elicit the same effect, possibly due to the fact that they produced a less marked rise in plasma carotenoids. On the other hand, one of the whole foods, cooked carrots, did lead to a moderate but significant increase in DNA repair patch synthesis activity in PBL. Indeed, the observed wide
inter-individual variation in PBL DNA repair patch synthesis activity, which could not be linked to any of the volunteers’ variables measured, suggests that either genetic or environmental factors, or both, are important for the regulation of DNA repair processes. The results presented here suggest that diet may be one such factor.Such modulation of DNA repair activity potentially hasgreat significance in relation to degenerative processes and human health.

10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDs)
In a study of `A Preliminary Trial of Beta-Carotene in Subjects Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus` by HARINDER S. GAREWAL,3 NEIL M. AMPEL, RONALD R. WATSON* RAO H. PRABHALA* A/VDCYNTHIA L DOLS (Departments of Internal Medicine, Family and Community Medicine*, Tucson Veterans Administration Medical Center and University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85724), researchers wrote that our results indicate that /3-carotene can alter some immune markers in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, increases in the expression of TFR, la and an NK cell marker (Leu 11) were seen. These increases ap peared to be maximal after 3 mo of /3-carotene and diminished during the fourth month, even though subjects remained on the drug. The reasons for this are not clear but similar findings have been noted in studies of subjects not infected with HIV (14). Longer treatment trials are needed to verify this observation and to truly assess the duration of the changes.

11. cognitive function
In a study of
A randomized trial of beta carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: the Physicians' Health Study II.`by Grodstein F, Kang JH, Glynn RJ, Cook NR, Gaziano JM. (Source of Channing Laboratory, School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that we did not find an impact of short-term beta carotene supplementation on cognitive performance, but long-term supplementation may provide cognitive benefits.

12. Pancreatic Cancer
In a study of `Low concentrations of beta-carotene stimulate the proliferation of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells in a PKA-dependent manner.` by Al-Wadei HA, Majidi M, Tsao MS, Schuller HM. (Source Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.) posted in National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that our data show significant concentration-dependent and PKA-dependent stimulation of all measured endpoints. Similar responses were achieved with forskolin. Our data indicate that low concentrations of beta-carotene stimulate the proliferation of the putative origin of PDAC, pancreatic duct epithelial cells via cAMP and PKA-dependent transactivation of the EGFR pathway. This could potentially have promoting effects on the development of PDAC.

For other health articles, please visit

Please follow me at

No comments:

Post a Comment