Monday, September 12, 2011

Phytochemicals: 16 Health Benefits of Polyphenols

Polyphenols is a water-soluble compounds and type of phytochemical with structural presentation of (high density of phenolic substructure) large multiples of phenol structural units. It is best known for its antioxidant property.

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1. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity
In a study of " Determination of polyphenols in three Capsicum annuum L. (bell pepper) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Their contribution to overall antioxidant and anticancer activity." by Jeong WY, Jin JS, Cho YA, Lee JH, Park S, Jeong SW, Kim YH, Lim CS, El-Aty AM, Kim GS, Lee SJ, Shim JH, Shin SC. (Source from Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that the antioxidant activity and anticancer effect of the polyphenol mixtures of the three fruits were determined. The antioxidant and anticancer activities of CLST were substantially higher than those of C. annuum L. cv. Cupra and C. annuum L. cv. Orange glory. The high activities of CLST were attributed to the much higher concentration of quercetin derivatives in CLST.

2. Anti-Platelet Activation and Aggregation
In a study of " In vitro anti-platelet effects of simple plant-derived phenolic compounds are only found at high, non-physiological concentrations." by Ostertag LM, O'Kennedy N, Horgan GW, Kroon PA, Duthie GG, de Roos B. (Source from University of Aberdeen, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Aberdeen, UK.) posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Incubation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers with 100 μmol/L hippuric acid, pyrogallol, catechol, or resorcinol significantly inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation (all p<0.05; n≥15). Incubation of whole blood with concentrations of 100 μmol/L salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl glycine, 5-methoxysalicylic acid, and catechol significantly inhibited TRAP-induced surface P-selectin expression (all p<0.05; n=10). Incubation with lower concentrations of phenolics affected neither platelet aggregation nor activation. Conclusion: As concentrations of 100 μmol/L are unlikely to be reached in the circulation, it is doubtful whether consumption of dietary phenolics in nutritionally attainable amounts plays a major role in inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation in humans.

3. Lipid bilayer (Barrier around cells membrane)
In a study of " Effects of green tea catechins on gramicidin channel function and inferred changes in bilayer properties." by Ingólfsson HI, Koeppe RE 2nd, Andersen OS. (Source from Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, United States.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that all the catechins alter gA channel function and modify bilayer properties, with a 500-fold range in potency (EGCG>ECG≫EGC>EC). Additionally, the gallate group causes current block, as evident by brief downward current transitions (flickers).

4. Coronary heart disease
Cocoa, containing high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids has been reported to play an important protective role against the development of CHD. In a study of " Chocolate and Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review." by Khawaja O, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. (Source from Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center (MAVERIC), Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA, posted in PubMed, researchers found that Although studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of chocolate on endothelial function, blood pressure, serum lipids, insulin resistance, and platelet function, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption influences the risk of CHD. This article reviews current evidence on the effects of cocoa/chocolate on clinical and subclinical CHD, CHD risk factors, and potential biologic mechanisms. It also discusses major limitations of currently available data and future directions in the field.

5. Colon and Liver Cancer
In a study of " Inhibitory Effect of Antioxidant Extracts From Various Potatoes on the Proliferation of Human Colon and Liver Cancer Cells." by Wang Q, Chen Q, He M, Mir P, Su J, Yang Q. (Source from a State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement/College of Life Sciences , Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing , Jiangsu Province , China.) posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that An inverse correlation was found between total phenolics and the EC(50) of colon cancer cell (R(2) = 0.9303), as well as liver cancer cell proliferation (R(2) = 0.8992). The relationship between antioxidant activity and EC(50) of colon cancer/liver cancer cell proliferation was significant (R(2) = 0.8144; R(2) = 0.956, respectively). A significant difference in inhibition of cancer cells (P < 0.01) existed between the 3 polyphenols: chlorogenic acid, pelargonidin chloride, and malvidin chloride, suggesting that chlorogenic acid was a critical factor in the antiproliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells.

6. Antibacterial Effects
According to a study of " Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia." by Betts JW, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ. (Source from Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK.). posted in PubMed, researchers found that the results showed strong antibacterial activity of theaflavin against eight clinical isolates of S. maltophilia and A. baumannii. Significant synergy (P≤0.05) was also observed between theaflavin and epicatechin against all isolates. Although the mechanisms for this activity and synergy are not well understood, the clinical potential is clear and further research is recommended to determine the modes of action.

7. Lipid Abnormalities and Arterial dysfunction
In a study of " Polyphenols prevent lipid abnormalities and arterial dysfunction in hamsters on a high-fat diet: a comparative study of red grape and white persimmon wines." by Suh JH, Virsolvy A, Goux A, Cassan C, Richard S, Cristol JP, Teissèdre PL, Rouanet JM. (Source from UMR 204-Prévention des Malnutritions et des Pathologies Associées, Université Montpellier 1 & 2, Place E. Bataillon, CC 023, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The two wines partially prevented these alterations, reducing O(2)°(-) production and improving vascular reactivity without altering endothelial function. There was no difference between the P and M groups, although the procyanidin composition of the two dealcoholized fractions differed significantly, and only dimer concentrations were similar and concluded that these findings indicate that polyphenols are responsible, at least in part, for the antiatherogenic/antioxidant effects of wines.

8. Breast Cancer
According to a study of " Polyphenols, isothiocyanates and carotenoid derivatives enhance estrogenic activity in bone cells but inhibit it in breast cancer cells." by Veprik A, Khanin M, Linnewiel Hermoni K, Danilenko M, Levy Y, Sharoni Y. (Source from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.) reseachers found that these results were evident in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells stably transfected with estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and MC3T3-E1 mouse calvaria-derived cells expressing endogenous ER. Phytonutrient-induced ERE inhibition in breast cancer cells and its potentiation in osteoblast-like cells were associated with a decrease and elevation of total and nuclear ERα levels, respectively. Phytonutrients activated the antioxidant response element (ARE) transcription system to various extents in all the cell lines tested. Overexpression of Nrf2, the major ARE activating transcription factor, mimicked the effects of phytonutrients, causing inhibition and enhancement of ERE transactivation in breast cancer cells and in osteoblast-like cells, respectively. Moreover, reduction in Nrf2 levels by RNAi led to a decrease in the phytonutrient potentiation of ERE activity transactivation in osteoblast-like cells. These data suggest that the enhancement and inhibition of estrogen signaling by phytonutrients in bone-derived cells and breast cancer cells, respectively, is partially mediated by the activation of the Nrf2/ARE system.

9. Brian Memory Enhancers
In a study of " Electrophysiological evidence of the effect of natural polyphenols upon the human higher brain functions." by Cimrová B, Budáč S, Melicherová U, Jergelova M, Jagla F. (Source from Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Centre of excellence for examination of regulatory role of nitric oxide in civilization diseases Bratislava, Slovakia. posted in PubMed, researchers found that even a single dose of the ProvinolsTM was able to affect positively the space memory for limited time duration. The improvement in space memory function and/or the positive role of attentional mechanisms may be taken into account mainly. More sensitive analysis of the particular participation of attentional and memory components demands the further study.

10. Hepatitis B
In a study of " Inhibition of the Replication of Hepatitis B Virus in Vitro by Pu-erh Tea Extracts." by Pei S, Zhang Y, Xu H, Chen X, Chen S. (Source from State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan 430071, China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that The MTT assay showed that PTE and its active components (tea polyphenols, theaflavins, and theanine) presented low cytotoxicity. ELISA analysis revealed that PTE effectively reduced the secretion of HBeAg, but any one of the active components alone showed weaker efficacy, suggesting that the anti-HBV activity of PTE might be a synergetic effect of different components. RT-PCR and luciferase assay showed that PTE suppressed HBV mRNA expression while leaving four HBV promoter transcriptional activities unchanged. Fluorescence quantitative PCR results demonstrated that PTE dramatically diminished HBV DNA produced in cell supernatants as well as encapsidated DNA in intracellular core particles. Finally, PTE significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. This study is the first to demonstrate that PTE possesses anti-HBV ability and could be used as a potential treatment against HBV infection with an additional merit of low cytotoxicity.

11. Infectious Diseases
According to the study of " Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine." by Assob JC, Kamga HL, Nsagha DS, Njunda AL, Nde PF, Asongalem EA, Njouendou AJ, Sandjon B, Penlap VB, posted in PubMed, researchers found that the chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs, and concluded that these results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Key words: Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine.

12. Anti-inflammatory activity
In a study of "Aronia melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells." by Zapolska-Downar D, Bryk D, Małecki M, Hajdukiewicz K, Sitkiewicz D. (Sourcefrom Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, The Warsaw Medical University, Banacha 1 Street, 02-097, Warsaw, Poland, posted in PubMed, researchers found that A. Melanocarpa extract significantly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and decreased intracellular ROS production in TNFα-treated HAECs and concluded that conclude that A. Melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in HAECs by inhibiting the expression of endothelial CAMs, activation of NF-κB and production of ROS.

13. Lipid Peroxidation
In the study of "The natural antioxidant rosmarinic acid spontaneously penetrates membranes to inhibit lipid peroxidation in situ." by Fadel O, El Kirat K, Morandat S. (Sourcefrom Université de Technologie de Compiègne-CNRS, UMR 6022 Génie Enzymatique et Cellulaire, BP 20529, 60205 Compiègne Cedex, France). posted in PubMed, researchers found that we prepared DLPC/RA vesicles to evidence for the first time that up to 1 mol% of RA inserts spontaneously in the membrane, which is high enough to fully prevent lipid peroxidation without any noticeable alteration of the membrane structure due to RA insertion.

14. Osteoarthritis
According to the study of " Green tea: a new option for the prevention or control of osteoarthritis." by Katiyar SK, Raman C. (Source from Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. posted in PubMed, researchers found that In a recent study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea polyphenol, was found to be effective in reducing IL-1β-induced inflammatory cytokines, TNFα, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and several chemokines from human chondrocytes. The use of green tea polyphenols may be beneficial as a therapeutic addition to biologics that control IL-1β activity by increasing effectiveness and/or reducing dosage.

15. Acute kidney injury
In the study of "Alleviation of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury using phytochemical polyphenols is accompanied by reduced accumulation of indoxyl sulfate in rats." by Kusumoto M, Kamobayashi H, Sato D, Komori M, Yoshimura M, Hamada A, Kohda Y, Tomita K, Saito H. ( Source from Department of Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Injection of cisplatin in rats markedly elevated the SCr and BUN levels, which were accompanied by tubular injuries and the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). By contrast, quercetin significantly suppressed the SCr and BUN levels in the cisplatin-treated rats and protected them against renal injury with the decreased expression of Kim-1. Quercetin had no effect on serum and renal levels of cisplatin. In addition, quercetin had no effect on cisplatin-induced renal accumulation of malondialdehyde. IS concentrations in serum, kidney, liver, intestine and lung were markedly elevated by cisplatin treatment, whereas quercetin suppressed the serum and tissue IS levels. An in vitro kinetic assay revealed that quercetin displayed a potent inhibitory effect on hepatic production of IS and concluded that
Inhibition of IS accumulation by oral administration of quercetin alleviates cisplatin-induced AKI.

16. Digestive System
According to the study of "Antidiarrheal mechanism of Carpolobia lutea leaf fractions in rats." by
Nwidu LL, Essien GE, Nwafor PA, Vilegas W. (Source from Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University , Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State , Nigeria.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that The ethyl acetate fraction produced 100% inhibition of intestinal transit, an effect greater than pure drug. Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded polyphenolic compounds. Conclusion: The leaf fractions contain two types of antidiarrheal agents, one mediating its effect through α(1)-presynaptic adrenoceptor while the other does not. Polyphenols isolated may in part lend credence for observed antidiarrheal activity.

17. Etc.

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