Monday, September 12, 2011

Phytochemicals: Hydroxycinnamic Acids

LinkHydroxycinnamic Acids, are group of Flavonoids, including Caffeic acid found in burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple; Chlorogenic acid found in echinacea, Linkstrawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries; Cinnamic acid found in aloe; Coumarin found in citrus fruits, maize, etc.

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1. Antioxidant
According to the study of " [Preparation and anti-oxidant activity of cinnamic acid derivatives-g-CTS]" [Article in Chinese] by Wu X, Hou Y, Li J, Li H. (Source from School of Pharmacy, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450008, China), posted in PubMed, researchers found that the antioxidation activities of all products were better than the raw material and suggested that Cinnamic acid derivatives-g-CTS is suitable as the O2-* -capture agent.

2. Lung adenocarcinoma cells
In a study of "A comparative study on the effectiveness of cis- and trans-form of cinnamic acid treatments for inhibiting invasive activity of human lung adenocarcinoma cells" by Yen GC, Chen YL, Sun FM, Chiang YL, Lu SH, Weng CJ. (Source from Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Rd, Taichung 40227, Taiwan), posted in PubMed, researchers found that that the treatment of c-CA and t-CA dose-dependently reduced the PMA-induced MMP-2 and -9 activities but without significant effect on the adhesive activity of cells. The PMA-induced motility was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by a 24-h treatment with c-CA and t-CA. The invasive ability was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 68% and 65%, respectively, relative to PMA treatment alone after treatment of PMA-treated A549 cells with either 50μM c-CA or 100μM t-CA for 24h and suggested that both of the c-CA and t-CA are inhibitors for invasion of A549 cells and the activity of c-CA seems to be higher than t-CA.

3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
In a study of "Transformation of cinnamic acid from trans- to cis-form raises a notable bactericidal and synergistic activity against multiple-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis." by Chen YL, Huang ST, Sun FM, Chiang YL, Chiang CJ, Tsai CM, Weng CJ. (Source from Graduate Institute of Applied Science of Living, Tainan University of Technology, 529 Zhongzheng Rd., Yongkang District, Tainan City 71002, Taiwan), posted in PubMed, researchers found in Abstract that the synergistic effects of c-CA (Cinnamic acid) and t-CA with two first-line anti-TB antibiotics, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), were also determined. Although both of c-CA and t-CA decreased the viability of MDR-TB bacilli in a dose-dependent manner, the antituberculosis activity of c-CA was approximately 120-fold of t-CA. Furthermore, the c-CA exhibited higher synergistic effect with INH or RIF against tuberculosis than t-CA. The micrographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) display that c-CA caused an injury on the out-layer of MDR-TB bacilli. The c-CA might be a potential anti-mycobacterial or synergistic agent that can be developed to against tuberculosis.

4. Anti-inflammatory
According to the study of "Cytotoxicity of active ingredients extracted from plants of the Brazilian "Cerrado" by Soares VC, Bonacorsi C, Andrela AL, Bortoloti LV, de Campos SC, Fagundes FH, Piovani M, Cotrim CA, Vilegas W, Toyama MH. (Source from Institute of Biology, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-862, Brazil, posted in PubMed, reseachers concluded that the cinnamic acid, sacandenin and palustric acid showed highest toxicity with a 50% reduction in cell viability for the dose of 50 microg/microL. Cytotoxic screening results are useful to estimate the best concentrations of those compounds with potential anti-inflammatory without their cause cell death.

5. Diabetes
In a study of "Phenylethyl cinnamides as potential alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Solanum melongena" by Liu X, Luo J, Kong L. (Source from Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China), posted in PubMed, researcher found in abstract that six phenolic compounds (1-6) from the 70% EtOH extract of the roots of Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae). Of these, three phenylethyl cinnamides, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (1), N-trans-p-coumaroyl tyramine (2) and N-cis-p-coumaroyl tyramine (3) possessed inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase with IC50 values of 500.6, 5.3 and 46.3 microM, respectively.

6. Antimalarial activity
In a study of "Antimalarial drug interactions of compounds isolated from Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and their synergism with artemether, against the multidrug-resistant W2mef Plasmodium falciparum strain" by Zofou D, Tene M, Tane P, Titanji VP. (Source from Biotechnology Unit, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, South West Region, Cameroon,, posted in PubMed, researchers in abstract indicated that all the three compounds showed synergistic effects with artemether, unlike the slight antagonistic interactions of atranorin and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid in combination with quinine. K. africana compounds are therefore likely to serve as leads in the development of new partner drugs in artemether-based combination therapy.

7. Antifungal activity
According to the study of "Size dependency of PLGA-nanoparticle uptake and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus" by Patel NR, Damann K, Leonardi C, Sabliov CM. (Source from Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA), posted in PubMed, researchers found that no differences in (Itraconazole and coumarin-6 loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid-nanoparticles (PLGA-ITZ- and PLGA-C6-NPs)) antifungal activity were observed at higher ITZ concentrations. Conclusion: The PLGA-ITZ-NP system can increase bioavailability of ITZ by improving its aqueous dispersibility and efficiently delivering ITZ to fungal cells via endocytosis.

8. Breast cancer
According to the study of " Enhanced cellular uptake of folic acid-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with vincristine sulfate in human breast cancer" by Chen J, Li S, Shen Q, He H, Zhang Y. (Source from School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that The NPs exhibited a biphasic drug release with a moderate initial burst followed by a sustained release profile. Internalization of the NPs labeled with coumarin- 6 by MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) human breast cancer cells was quantitatively measured by microplate reader, and qualitatively analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

9. Mood and cognition
In a study of "Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study" by Cropley V, Croft R, Silber B, Neale C, Scholey A, Stough C, Schmitt J. (Source from Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Compared with the decaffeinated coffee with regular chlorogenic acid and placebo, caffeinated coffee showed a robust positive effect on higher-level mood and attention processes. To a lesser extent, the decaffeinated coffee high in chlorogenic acid also improved some mood and behavioral measures, relative to regular decaffeinated coffee.

10. Allergy-preventive effects
In a study of "Allergy-preventive effects of chlorogenic acid and iridoid derivatives from flower buds of Lonicera japonica" by Oku H, Ogawa Y, Iwaoka E, Ishiguro K. (Source from School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Japan), posted in PubMed, researchers found in abstract that the flower buds of L. japonica and compounds isolated from them have allergy-preventive properties. The structure-activity relationship of iridoid derivatives, morroniside (5), geniposide (6), asperuloside (7), aucubin (8) and catalpol (9), were also tested using the same bioassay method. Compounds 2-5 and 9 having the sp(3) atom at C-8 showed an allergy-preventive effect, while compounds 6, 7 and 8 having a double bond at C-7, C-8 did not and suggested that non-caffeine compounds in coffee such as the chlorogenic acids may be capable of exerting some acute behavioral effects, thus warranting further investigation.

11. Gastrointestinal hormone secretion
According to the abstract of the study of "Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine" by
Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. (Source from Centre for Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion decreased throughout the experimental period (P < 0.005), and glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion increased 0-120 min postprandially (P < 0.01) after decaffeinated coffee consumption compared with the control. Glucose and insulin profiles were consistent with the known metabolic effects of caffeine. However, the gastrointestinal hormone profiles were consistent with delayed intestinal glucose absorption and suggested that chlorogenic acid might have an antagonistic effect on glucose transport. Therefore, a novel function of some dietary phenols in humans may be to attenuate intestinal glucose absorption rates and shift the site of glucose absorption to more distal parts of the intestine.

12. Weight control
In a study of "Coffee, diabetes, and weight control" by Greenberg JA, Boozer CN, Geliebter A. (Source from Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn College, City University of New York, New York, NY 11210, USA), posted in PunMed, researchers indicated that A second such study found that both caffeine and coffee intakes were modestly and inversely associated with weight gain. It is possible that caffeine and other constituents of coffee, such as chlorogenic acid and quinides, are involved in causing weight loss.

13. Etc.

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