Friday, September 9, 2011

Phytochemicals: 11 Health Benefits of Resveratrol (Stilbenoids)

Stilbenoids are type of chemical compound, belonging to the family of phenylpropanoids, including Resveratrol, Pterostilbene and Piceatannol found in grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts, etc., According to the article of "Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth." by Sobolev VS, Horn BW, Potter TL, Deyrup ST, Gloer JB. (Source from National Peanut Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 509, Dawson, Georgia 39842, USA., posted in PubMed.

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Resveratrol is a type of natural phenol in the group of Stilbenoids, produced naturally by many plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. It has been studied by many researchers for it health benefits in treating chronic diaereses, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc.

1. Coronary Artery Disease
In a study of "Resveratrol: a promising agent in promoting cardioprotection against coronary heart disease." by Penumathsa SV, Maulik N. (Source from Molecular Cardiology and Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-1110, USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that many studies have provided evidence that resveratrol possesses antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects apart from activation of longevity proteins (such as SIRT-1). We have recently reported the angiogenic, antihypercholesterolemic, and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypercholesterolemic, antidiabetic effects of resveratrol and the mechanisms involved in reduced ventricular remodeling and increased cardiac functions. We have also shown different strategic target molecules involved in resveratrol-mediated.

In a study of " Ageing skin: oestrogen receptor β agonists offer an approach to change the outcome." by Jackson RL, Greiwe JS, Schwen RJ (Source from Ausio Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Cincinnati, OH, USA.), posted in PubMed, reasearchers mentioned in abstract that the evidence to date suggests that the primary mechanism of action of these antioxidants is to activate oestrogen receptor β (ERβ), which in turn enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibits the expression of snail, a transcription factor that regulates keratinocyte cell proliferation and migration. Based on their selectivity, ERβ agents provide a treatment option for ageing skin without the potential safety issues associated with oestrogen therapy.

3. Breast Cancer
According to the study of " Formation of diethylstilbestrol-DNA adducts in human breast epithelial cells and inhibition by resveratrol." by Hinrichs B, Zahid M, Saeed M, Ali MF, Cavalieri EL, Rogan EG. (Source from Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986805 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6805, United States.) researchers found that gemonstrating that treatment of MCF-10F cells with DES, a known human carcinogen, yields depurinating adducts provides further support for the involvement of these adducts in the induction of breast neoplasia.

4. Neuroprotective Activity
in a study of "Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic apoptotic cell death in a cell culture model of neurotoxicity" by Kanthasamy K, Gordon R, Jin H, Anantharam V, Ali S, Kanthasamy AG, Kanthasamy A. (Source from Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1250.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract that . Notably, treatment with resveratrol almost completely attenuated MA-induced caspase-3 activity, but only partially reduced apoptotic cell death. We conclude that the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol is at least in part mediated by suppression of caspase-3 dependent cell death pathways. Collectively, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can attenuate MA-induced apoptotic cell death and suggest that resveratrol or its analogs may have therapeutic benefits in mitigating MA-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

5. Anti-Inflammation
In a study of "Resveratrol, MicroRNAs, Inflammation, and Cancer." by Tili E, Michaille JJ. (Source from Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University, Biomedical Research Tower, 460 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers mentioned in abstract that the above microRNAs are thought to link inflammation and cancer. Recently, resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, currently at the stage of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention, has been shown to induce the expression of miR-663, a tumor-suppressor and anti-inflammatory microRNA, while downregulating miR-155 and miR-21.

6. Melanoma
In a study of "Resveratrol modulates the malignant properties of cutaneous melanoma through changes in the activation and attenuation of the antiapoptotic protooncogenic protein Akt/PKB." byBhattacharya S, Darjatmoko SR, Polans AS. (Source from The UW-Madison Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.), posted in PibMed, reseachers found that Oral treatment with resveratrol reduced primary tumor volume, Akt expression, and the propensity for metastasis in syngeneic mouse models of melanoma. These results suggest that resveratrol can reduce the malignant properties of highly invasive melanoma cells by inactivating Akt. The nontoxic targeting of Akt by resveratrol makes it an attractive treatment option for melanoma.

7. Angiogenic effects
According to the study of " Anti-angiogenic effects of resveratrol on cerebral angiogenesis." by
Chen PL, Easton AS. (Source from Department of Pathology, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Cytotoxic effects were not detected in BBMEC. Resveratrol (10-50 µM) inhibited phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, by Western blot (15 min, 1h) with a prolonged inhibition (24h) for 25 µM. In conclusion, this study shows inhibitory effects of resveratrol on cerebral angiogenesis, using an in vitro model. This is discussed in terms of dosage, in vivo equivalence and therapeutic potential.

8. Lipid metabolism
in a study of " [Effects of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice]."[Article in Chinese]
by Ren Y, Li Y, Zhao Y, Yu F, Zhan Z, Yuan Y, Yang J. (Source from Department of Nutrition and Food hygiene, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China. researchers found that The serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C levels of high-fat diet and resveratrol groups were higher than those of control group (P < 0.05), and the serum TC and LDL-C levels of high-fat diet were also higher than those of resveratrol group (P < 0. 05). But the serum TG levels of high-fat diet and resveratrol groups were lower than those of control group (P < 0.05). The TC content of liver in high-fat diet group were higher than those of control and resveratrol groups (P < 0.05), and concluded that The TC content in C57BL/6J mice can be decreased by resveratrol (22.5 mg/kg BW).

9. Oxidative stress
In a study of " Resveratrol up-regulates SIRT1 and inhibits cellular oxidative stress in the diabetic milieu: mechanistic insights." by Yun JM, Chien A, Jialal I, Devaraj S. (Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.), reseachers wrote in abstract that In this study, we tested the protective effect of resveratrol on cellular oxidative stress through the SIRT1-FOXO pathway under high-glucose conditions. Human monocytic (THP-1) cells were cultured in the presence of mannitol (osmolar control) or normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/l glucose) or hyperglycemic (HG, 25 mmol/l glucose) conditions in absence or presence of resveratrol (3 and 6 μmol/l) for 48 h. We first examined SIRT1 activity and oxidative stress in monocytes of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients compared with healthy controls. In T1DM patients, monocytic SIRT1 expression was significantly decreased and p47phox expression was increased compared with controls. Under HG in vitro, SIRT1 and FOXO3a were significantly decreased compared with NG, and this was reversed by resveratrol treatment, concomitant with reduction in HG-induced superoxide production and p47phox. Under HG, SIRT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited FOXO3a, and there was no beneficial effect of resveratrol in siRNA-treated HG-induced cells.

10. Diabetes and 11. Obesity
According to the study of " Resveratrol, obesity and diabetes." by Szkudelska K, Szkudelski T. (Source from Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland. posted in PubMed, researchers found that The accumulating evidence also indicates the benefits of resveratrol in diabetes and diabetic complications. It is known that resveratrol affects insulin secretion and blood insulin concentration. In animals with hyperinsulinemia, resveratrol was found to reduce blood insulin. Moreover, numerous data indicate that in diabetic rats, resveratrol is able to reduce hyperglycemia. The mechanism of resveratrol's action is complex and is demonstrated to involve both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent effects. These data point to the potential possibility of use of resveratrol in preventing and/or treating both obesity and diabetes.

12. Etc.

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