Monday, September 12, 2011

Phytochemicals: 12 Health Benefits of Lutein

Lutein is one of carotenoids found in many green leafy vegetables, egg yolks, animal fats, and the retina. It is best known as its property as an antioxidant and yellow color is as a result of its activity in absorbing blue light.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
Use the science behind the health benefits of vegetables
to improve your health, delay aging and cure major diseases.

Macular Degeneration
In a study of " Lutein and zeaxanthin intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis." by Ma L, Dou HL, Wu YQ, Huang YM, Huang YB, Xu XR, Zou ZY, Lin XM. (Source from Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China.) posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that the search yielded six longitudinal cohort studies. The pooled relative risk (RR) for early AMD, comparing the highest with the lowest category of lutein and zeaxanthin intake, was 0·96 (95 % CI 0·78, 1·17). Dietary intake of these carotenoids was significantly related with a reduction in risk of late AMD (RR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·97); and a statistically significant inverse association was observed between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk (RR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·92). ans concluded that the findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin is not significantly associated with a reduced risk of early AMD, whereas an increase in the intake of these carotenoids may be protective against late AMD. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these relationships.

2. Eye Health
According to the study of " Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health." by Ma L, Lin XM. (Source from Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191, China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that Most of epidemiological studies and clinical trials support the notion that lutein and zeaxanthin have a potential role in the prevention and treatment of certain eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, cataract and retinitis pigmentosa. The biological mechanisms for the protective effects of these carotenoids may include powerful blue-light filtering activities and antioxidant properties. Although most studies point towards significant health benefits from lutein and zeaxanthin, further large-scale randomised supplementation trials are needed to define their effects on ocular function in health and disease.

3. Cataract
In a study of "Lutein prevents cataract development and progression in diabetic rats." by
Arnal E, Miranda M, Almansa I, Muriach M, Barcia JM, Romero FJ, Diaz-Llopis M, Bosch-Morell F. (Source from Departamento de Fisiología, Farmacología & Toxicología, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Avda. Seminario s/n, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain.), posted in PubMed, reseachers found that Lipid peroxidation is significantly increased in diabetic lens (up to three-fold); lutein and insulin, alone or in combination, are able to prevent this alteration. Only insulin and lutein together could prevent the diabetes-induced decrease of glutathione content, and concluded that the combined treatment with lutein and insulin is useful in preventing the development of cataracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, supporting its utility in diabetes management, especially when a tight metabolic control is difficult to achieve.

4. Gastric inflammation
In the study of `β-Carotene and Lutein Inhibit Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Activation of NF-κB and IL-8 Expression in Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells.`by Kim Y, Seo JH, Kim H. (Source fromDepartment of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that H(2)O(2 )induced the activation of NF-κB and expression of IL-8 in AGS cells time-dependently. β-Carotene and lutein showed inhibitory effects on H(2)O(2)-induced increase in intracellular ROS levels, activation of NF-κB, and IL-8 expression in AGS cells. In conclusion, supplementation of carotenoids such as β-carotene and lutein may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated gastric inflammation.

5. Atherosclerosis
In the study of `High serum level of lutein may be protective against early atherosclerosis: The Beijing atherosclerosis study.`by Zou Z, Xu X, Huang Y, Xiao X, Ma L, Sun T, Dong P, Wang X, Lin X. (Source from Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that In cases of early atherosclerosis, serum level of lutein was significantly lower than that in controls. Serum lutein was inversely associated with carotid IMT. Zeaxanthin and β-carotene were both negatively correlated with right common carotid artery stiffness β, elastic modulus (E(p)), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). After adjusting for age and gender, the associations remain significantly (P<0.05), and concluded that that lutein may play a protective role in the prevention of early atherosclerosis, and the associations between serum carotenoids and arterial stiffness remained to be investigated.

6. Cholesterol, Oxidized LDL and Inflammation
In a study of `A lutein-enriched diet prevents cholesterol accumulation and decreases oxidized LDL and inflammatory cytokines in the aorta of guinea pigs.`by Kim JE, Leite JO, DeOgburn R, Smyth JA, Clark RM, Fernandez ML. (Source from Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that
a. Cholesterol
Aortic cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations were lower in the lutein group (9.6 ± 2.8 mmol/g and 1.69 ± 1.35 nmol/mg protein) compared to the control group (15.5 ± 2.3 mmol/g and 2.98 ± 1.45 nmol/mg protein) (P < 0.05)
b. Oxidized LDL
Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) was lower both in plasma and aorta in the lutein group compared to the control group (P < 0.001).
c. Inflammatory cytokines
Aortic cytokines were also lower in the lutein group (P < 0.05). Plasma lutein and oxLDL (r = -0.79; P < 0.0001) and plasma lutein and aortic oxLDL (r = -0.64; P < 0.0001) were negatively correlated.
and concluded that these data suggest that lutein exerts potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects in aortic tissue that may protect against development of atherosclerosis in guinea pigs.

7. Retinal DNA repair
In a study of `Biological role of lutein in the light-induced retinal degeneration.`by Sasaki M, Yuki K, Kurihara T, Miyake S, Noda K, Kobayashi S, Ishida S, Tsubota K, Ozawa Y. (Source fromLaboratory of Retinal Cell Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that the expression of eyes absent (EYA), which promotes DNA repair and cell survival, was significantly up-regulated with lutein diet in the light-exposed retina. Therefore, lutein induced EYA for DNA repair, which could suppress DNA damage and photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Lutein reduced light-induced oxidative stress in the retina, which might contribute to promote DNA repair. The lutein-supplemented diet attenuated light-induced visual impairment by protecting the photoreceptor cells' DNA.

8. Retinitis pigmentosa
In the article of `Lutein May Slow Retinitis Pigmentosa` by By Charles Bankhead, Staff Writer, MedPage Today, Published: April 13, 2010, Reviewed by Dori F. Zaleznik, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston and Dorothy Caputo, MA, RN, BC-ADM, CDE, Nurse Planner, posted in MedPage today, the author indicated that "The randomized comparisons demonstrating a beneficial effect of lutein on slowing mid-peripheral field sensitivity loss, and the observational data that maximal slowing occurred among those with the highest serum lutein levels and greatest increase in macular pigment optical density, provide evidence to support the use of 12-mg/d lutein supplementations among adults with typical retinitis pigmentosa also taking 15,000 IU/d of vitamin A palmitate and eating one to two servings of oily fish per week,"

9. Environmental irritants
In the study of `Lutein Inhibits the Function of the Transient Receptor Potential A1 Ion Channel in Different In Vitro and In Vivo Models.`by Horváth G, Szőke E, Kemény A, Bagoly T, Deli J, Szente L, Pál S, Sándor K, Szolcsányi J, Helyes Z. (Source from Department of Pharmacognosy, Medical School, University of Pécs, Rókus utca 2, Pécs, 7624, Hungary.) posted in PubMed, researchers found that that lutein inhibits TRPA1, but not TRPV1 stimulation-induced responses on cell bodies and peripheral terminals of sensory neurons in vitro and in vivo. Based on these distinct actions and the carotenoid structure, the ability of lutein to modulate lipid rafts in the membrane around TRP channels can be suggested.

10. Antioxidants
In the study of ` Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of fruits and leaves of paprika (Capsicum Annuum L., var. special) cultivated in Korea.`by Kim JS, Ahn J, Lee SJ, Moon B, Ha TY, Kim S. (Source from Food and Nutrition in Home Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Korea Natl Open Univ, 169 Dongsung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul 110-791, Republic of Korea.), posted in PubMed, reseachers found that The results indicate that the amounts of capsanthin and L-ascorbic acid in RP correlate well with antioxidant activity. PL, which has various phytochemicals such as lutein, chlorophyll, and γ-tocopherol, might be used in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals for improving human health.

11. Etc.

For more health series and article

follow me on twitter

No comments:

Post a Comment