Thursday, December 1, 2011

Phytochemicals in Foods - 8 Health Benefits of Petunidin

Petunidin, a dark-red or purple water-soluble pigment, is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in many redberries and some species of grape, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidants
In the investigation of a newly developed nongenetically modified purple tomato V118 was investigated for its phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activities, found that three major anthocyanins, which were mainly acylglycosides of petunidin and malvidin. This study showed that purple tomatoes such as V118 possess additional phytochemicals like anthocyanins, which can potentially have added health benefits, according to "Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of a purple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)" by Li H, Deng Z, Liu R, Young JC, Zhu H, Loewen S, Tsao R.(1)

2. Anti diabetes
In the determination of the methanolic extracts of whole fruit and skin of the muscadine and theirs effect on the α-glucosidase with their IC(50) values at 1.50 and 2.73 mg/mL, and those against the lipase at 16.90 and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively, showed that that the muscadine extracts possessed strong antidiabetic activities. Particularly, the ethyl acetate (EtoAc) extract and the butanol (BuOH) extract exhibited much higher inhibitory activities against both enzymes than the CHCl(3) and water extracts, while the majority of anthocyanins existed in the BuOH fractions. Moreover, cyanidin exhibited a much stronger antidiabetic activity than cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, suggesting that anthocyanins may have higher inhibitory activities after being digested. Further chromatographic analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified five individual anthocyanins, including cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin glycosides, according to "Inhibitory effects of muscadine anthocyanins on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities" by You Q, Chen F, Wang X, Luo PG, Jiang Y.(2)

3. Antioxidant and Eye strain
In the registration of New red leaf tea cultivar 'Sunrouge' (Camellia taliensis × Camellia sinensis), for which an application of an anthocyanin-rich tea was made in 2009, found that the four anthocyanins were identified were delphinidin-3-O-β-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaroyl)galactopyranoside (2), delphinidin-3-O-β-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside (3), cyanidin-3-O-β-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaroyl)galactopyranoside (4), and cyanidin-3-O-β-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside (5), and the other two were estimated as delphinidin-(Z)-p-coumaroylgalactopyranoside (1), petunidin-(E)-p-coumaroylgalactopyranoside (6). Compound 3 was found in tea for the first time. In general, anthocyanins have various bioactivities, including relieving eyestrain and antioxidative effects, so it is expected that drinking 'Sunrouge' tea brings in similar bioactivities, according to "Anthocyanins from new red leaf tea 'Sunrouge'" by Saito T, Honma D, Tagashira M, Kanda T, Nesumi A, Maeda-Yamamoto M.(3)

4. Oxidative stress
In the analyzing procyanidins B1, B2, and A2 identified by UPLC/ESI-MS(2) along with the presence of other flavanol oligomers, showed that processing induced the release of large amounts of aglycones for ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and quercetin. The described anthocyanic composition of lingonberry was completed with hexoside derivatives of peonidin, petunidin, malvidin, and delphinidin. Besides confirmation of in vitro antioxidant activity, in vivo study was performed on rats fed a diet inducing oxidative stress. Supplementation with lingonberry extract significantly decreased the total oxidant status and favorably affected antioxidant defense enzymes in red blood cells and liver, according to "Food grade lingonberry extract: polyphenolic composition and in vivo protective effect against oxidative stress" by
Mane C, Loonis M, Juhel C, Dufour C, Malien-Aubert C.(4)

5. Anti cancers
In the evaluation the anti cancers effect of extracted Vaccinium uliginosum Anthocyanins (A(V.uli)), a type of blueberry found in the Chinese Changbai Mountains, found that The optimum process of A(V.uli) extraction involved conditions of temperature 20°C, pH 2.0, and diatomaceous earth 1.0 g/50 g of fruit weight. A(V.uli) contained 5 main components: delphinidin (40.70 ± 1.72)%, cyanidin (3.40 ± 0.68)%, petunidin (17.70 ± 0.54)%, peonidin (2.90 ± 0.63)% and malvidin (35.50 ± 1.11)%. The malvidin percentage was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than it in A(V.myr). A(V.uli) complied with a dose-dependent repression of cancer cell proliferation with an IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) value of 50 µg/ml, and showed greater anticancer efficiency than A(L.cae) and A(V.myr) under the same cell treatment conditions, according to "Anthocyanins extracted from Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) and its anticancer effects on DLD-1 and COLO205 cells" by
Zu XY, Zhang ZY, Zhang XW, Yoshioka M, Yang YN, Li J.(5)

6. Liver cancer
In the identication, if the anthocyanins (delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside: cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside: petunidin-3,5-diglucoside: delphinidin-3-glucoside: malvdin-3,5-diglucoside: peonidin-3,5-diglucoside: cyanidin-3-glucoside: petunidin-3-glucoside: peonidin-3- glucoside: malvidin-3- glucoside = 27:63:8.27:1:2.21:2.21:6.7:1.25:5.72:1.25) [corrected] isolated from meoru (Vitis coignetiae Pulliat) exerted antiproliferative and anti-invasive and apoptotic effects on human hepatoma Hep3B cells, found that the anthocyanins from meoru have antiproliferative and anti-invasive effects and may induce apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondrial pathway and inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins. This study provides evidence that the anthocyanins isolated from meoru might be useful in the treatment of human hepatitis B-associated hepatoma, according to "Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of invasion in human hepatoma cells by anthocyanins from meoru" by Shin DY, Ryu CH, Lee WS, Kim DC, Kim SH, Hah YS, Lee SJ, Shin SC, Kang HS, Choi YH.(6)

7. Photoaging
In the investigation of the capacity of anthocyanin-rich extract from bog blueberry (ATH-BBe) to inhibit photoaging in UV-B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. BBe anthocyanins were detected as cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin3-glucoside. ATH-BBe attenuated UV-B-induced toxicity accompanying reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the resultant DNA damage responsible for activation of p53, found that ATH-BBe dampens UV-B-triggered collagen destruction and inflammatory responses through modulating NF-kappaB-responsive and MAPK-dependent pathways. Therefore, anthocyanins from edible bog blueberry may be protective against UV-induced skin photoaging, according to "Bog blueberry anthocyanins alleviate photoaging in ultraviolet-B irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblasts" by Bae JY, Lim SS, Kim SJ, Choi JS, Park J, Ju SM, Han SJ, Kang IJ, Kang YH.(7)

8. Breast cancer
In the standardization of Jamun fruit extract (JFE) to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, showed that JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin, found that JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC(50) = 27 microg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC(50) = 40 microg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 microg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro.

9. Etc.


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