Thursday, December 1, 2011

Phytochemicals In Foods - 7 Health Benefits of Peonidin

Peonidin is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, grape, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Lung cancer
In the demonstration of peonidin 3-glucoside (P3G) could significantly inhibit the invasion (P < 0.001), motility (P < 0.05), secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) of lung cancer cells, found that the inhibitory effects of P3G may be at least partly through inactivation of ERK 1/2 and AP-1 signaling pathways as confirmed by abolishment of P3G-inhibited H1299 cell invasion by overexpression of MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1). Finally, P3G was evidenced by its inhibition on the metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vivo (P < 0.001), according to "Peonidin 3-glucoside inhibits lung cancer metastasis by downregulation of proteinases activities and MAPK pathway" by Ho ML, Chen PN, Chu SC, Kuo DY, Kuo WH, Chen JY, Hsieh YS.(1)

2. Cognitive and motor functions
In the investigation of the fractions extracted using methanol (MEOH) and ethanol (ETOH) were particularly rich in anthocyanins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin, and their effect on age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement, found that the protection of microglial cells by açai pulp extracts, particularly that of MEOH, ETOH, and ACE fractions, was also accompanied by a significant concentration-dependent reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The current study offers valuable insights into the protective effects of açai pulp fractions on brain cells, which could have implications for improved cognitive and motor functions, according to "Anthocyanin-rich Açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Fruit Pulp Fractions Attenuate Inflammatory Stress Signaling in Mouse Brain BV-2 Microglial Cells" by Poulose SM, Fisher DR, Larson J, Bielinski DF, Rimando AM, Carey AN, Schauss AG, Shukitt-Hale B.(2)

3. Diabetes
In the examination of the inhibitory effects of the Noble muscadine grape extracts and the representative phytochemicals for anthocyanins (i.e., cyanidin and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside) on two enzymes, that is, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, found that the ethyl acetate (EtoAc) extract and the butanol (BuOH) extract exhibited much higher inhibitory activities against both enzymes than the CHCl(3) and water extracts, while the majority of anthocyanins existed in the BuOH fractions. Moreover, cyanidin exhibited a much stronger antidiabetic activity than cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, suggesting that anthocyanins may have higher inhibitory activities after being digested. Further chromatographic analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified five individual anthocyanins, including cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin glycosides. according to "Inhibitory effects of muscadine anthocyanins on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities" by You Q, Chen F, Wang X, Luo PG, Jiang Y.(3)

4. Antioxidants
In the investigation of BSSCs of 60 Chinese varieties examined for phenolic contents, anthocyanin profiles, and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic and condensed tannin contents ranged from 512.2 to 6057.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g and from 137.2 to 1741.1 mg (+)-catechin equivalents/100 g, respectively. Six anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside) were detected by HPLC, found that antioxidant properties detected by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods all showed wide variations ranging from 4.8 to 65.3 μg/100 mL (expressed as EC(50)), from 17.5 to 105.8 units/g, and from 42.5 to 1834.6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Sixty varieties were classified into four groups by hierarchical clustering analysis, and group 4 consisting of nine varieties had the highest phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity, according to "Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in seed coats of 60 Chinese black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) varieties" by Zhang RF, Zhang FX, Zhang MW, Wei ZC, Yang CY, Zhang Y, Tang XJ, Deng YY, Chi JW.(4)

5. Hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease
In the evaluation of the effect of white and black rice consumption on lipid profile, hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric reactive substances and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in 24 male rabbits, found that serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was higher (P < 0.05) in the PCBR compared with the PC and PCWR groups. Hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric reactive substances were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the PCBR compared with PCWR and PC groups. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-Glu) and peonidin-3-glucoside have been tested in vitro against copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein. Cy-3-Glu was excelled peonidin-3-glucoside by increasing the lag time of NC from 80 to 500 minutes in the presence of 2.0 μM of Cy-3-Glu, according to "Switching to black rice diets modulates low-density lipoprotein oxidation and lipid measurements in rabbits" by Abdel-Moemin AR.(5)

6. Antimicrobial activity
In the examination of the accumulation of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in berries of European cranberry, including anthocyanin peonidin-3-galactoside and to assess their antibacterial activity, found that Investigation of the antimicrobial properties showed that European cranberry extracts inhibited the growth of wide range of human pathogenic bacteria, both gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis), according to "Phenolics and anthocyanins in berries of European cranberry and their antimicrobial activity" by Cesoniene L, Jasutiene I, Sarkinas A.(6)

7. Breast cancer
In the investigation of the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, found that JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC(50) = 27 microg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC(50) = 40 microg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL) breast cells, according to "Eugenia jambolana Lam. berry extract inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer but not non-tumorigenic breast cells" by Li L, Adams LS, Chen S, Killian C, Ahmed A, Seeram NP.(7)

8. Etc.

Pharmacy In Vegetables
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1 comment:

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