Thursday, December 1, 2011

Phytochemicals - 10 Health Benefits of Malvidin

Malvidin is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in bilberry, blueberry, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antiradical properties
In the investigation of after reaction with O(2)(•-) radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two portisins derived from malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were used for this study, indicated that interpretations were confirmed by comparison with the spectra of free radicals formed by oxidation of the model compounds cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and catechin. These results concur with previous work reporting the higher antiradical properties of these pigments compared to their anthocyanin precursors, according to "Antiradical properties of red wine portisins" by Pirker KF, Oliveira J, de Freitas V, Goodman BA, Mateus N.(1)

2. Antioxidants
In the determination of the hydroxyl and superoxide anion scavenging activities of anthocyanins and their pyruvic acid adducts by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and spin trapping,
found that the 3-glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin and malvidin, and the pyruvic adduct of the 3-glucoside of delphinidin exhibited a potent superoxide anion radical scavenging and, to a lesser extent hydroxyl anion radical scavenging activity. The pyranoanthocyanins of cyanidin, petunidin, malvidin and pelargonidin showed a high capacity to scavenge superoxide anion radicals but did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals, according to "Electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies on the free radical scavenging activity of wine anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins" by Garcia-Alonso M, Rimbach G, Sasai M, Nakahara M, Matsugo S, Uchida Y, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, De Pascual-Teresa S.(2)

3. Anti colon and liver cancer
In the identification of the antioxidant extracts from 5 potato lines were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total phenolics, chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin content, and in vitro anticancer capacity, found that a significant difference in inhibition of cancer cells (P < 0.01) existed between the 3 polyphenols: chlorogenic acid, pelargonidin chloride, and malvidin chloride, suggesting that chlorogenic acid was a critical factor in the antiproliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells, according to "Inhibitory effect of antioxidant extracts from various potatoes on the proliferation of human colon and liver cancer cells" by
Wang Q, Chen Q, He M, Mir P, Su J, Yang Q.(3)

4. Estrogen-like effects
In the investigation of the effects of non-alcoholic wine fractions from five different wines on the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) via the expression and enzymatic activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells, found that all wine extracts maximally enhanced NO production at doses in the range achieved with a moderate wine intake, with decreasing effects with further increases of the dose. Interestingly, a part of these actions was recruited via estrogen receptors (ERs). Within the polyphenols with known binding activity for ERs contained in the tested wines, resveratrol, epicatechin, syringic acid, apigenin, malvidin and ellagic acid were largely responsible for eNOS activation. These findings show that some of the non-alcoholic components of wine enhance the production of NO by the vessels acting on ERs, and suggest that a moderate intake of wine may benefit the cardiovascular system through estrogen-like effects, according to "Estrogen-like effects of wine extracts on nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells" by
Simoncini T, Lenzi E, Zöchling A, Gopal S, Goglia L, Russo E, Polak K, Casarosa E, Jungbauer A, Genazzani AD, Genazzani AR.(4)

5. Cardiovascular diseases
In the investigation of the connection between Vaccinium myrtillus and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with the main anthocyanidins combined in myrtillin chloride and separately in cyanidin, delphinidin, and malvidin, respectively and their effects on ACE, found that After 10 min of incubation with bilberry 25E, a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of ACE activity was seen, and after incubation with myrtillin chloride a significant inhibition was seen. No effect was seen with the anthocyanidins. The effect seems to be dependent on this specific mixture of anthocyanins in the bilberry. V. myrtillus may thus have the potential to prevent and protect against cardiovascular diseases, according to "Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells" by Persson IA, Persson K, Andersson RG.(5)

6. Leukemia
In the examination of ethanol extracts of 10 edible berries, bilberry extract and theirs effect in inhibition of the growth of HL60 human leukemia cells and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells in vitro, found that Of the extracts tested, that from bilberry contained the largest amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, and showed the greatest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Pure delphinidin and malvidin, like the glycosides isolated from the bilberry extract, induced apoptosis in HL60 cells, according to "Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the anthocyanins" by Katsube N, Iwashita K, Tsushida T, Yamaki K, Kobori M.(6)

7. Neuroprotective effects
in the determination of whether a Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) anthocyanoside (VMA) and/or its main anthocyanidin constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, and malvidin) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against retinal damage in vitro and in vivo, found that VMA and all three anthocyanidins (i) significantly inhibited SIN-1-induced neurotoxicity and radical activation in RGC-5, (ii) concentration-dependently inhibited lipid peroxidation in mouse forebrain homogenates. Intravitreously injected VMA significantly inhibited the NMDA-induced morphological retinal damage and increase in TUNEL-positive cells in the ganglion cell layer. Thus, VMA and its anthocyanidins have neuroprotective effects (exerted at least in part via an anti-oxidation mechanism) in these in vitro and in vivo models of retinal diseases, according to "Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo" by Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Araki Y, Hara H.(7)

8. Skin photoaging
In the investigation of the capacity of anthocyanin-rich extract from bog blueberry (ATH-BBe) to inhibit photoaging in UV-B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts, found that ATH-BBe dampens UV-B-triggered collagen destruction and inflammatory responses through modulating NF-kappaB-responsive and MAPK-dependent pathways. Therefore, anthocyanins from edible bog blueberry may be protective against UV-induced skin photoaging, according to "Bog blueberry anthocyanins alleviate photoaging in ultraviolet-B irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblasts" by Bae JY, Lim SS, Kim SJ, Choi JS, Park J, Ju SM, Han SJ, Kang IJ, Kang YH.(8)

9. Gastric adenocarcinoma
In the investigation of the mechanistic basis for the anti-tumor properties of anthocyanins, five aglycone (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin) and four glycosylated (cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside) anthocyanins and their effects on cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells, found that . The occurrence of apoptosis induced by malvidin was confirmed by morphological and biochemical features, including apoptotic bodies formation, caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential of apoptotic cells after treatment with malvidin was significantly lost and resulted in the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio for 1.6-fold against control for 100 microM treatment. In addition, the malvidin treatment significantly increased the p38 kinase expression and inhibited the ERK activity, and the effects of malvidin on caspase-3 activation were blocked, respectively, by the ERK and p38 inhibitors, according to "Effects of anthocyanidin on the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells" by Shih PH, Yeh CT, Yen GC(9)

10. Insulin secretion
In the determination of the ability of anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside (1), delphinidin-3-glucoside (2), cyanidin-3-galactoside (3), and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (4), and anthocyanidins, cyanidin (5), delphinidin (6), pelargonidin (7), malvidin (8), and petunidin (9), in stimulating insulin secretion from rodent pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1 832/13) in vitro, found that 1 and 2 were the most effective insulin secretagogues among the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Pelargonidin-3-galactoside is one of the major anthocyanins, and its aglycone, pelargonidin, caused a 1.4-fold increase in insulin secretion at 4 mM glucose concentration. The rest of the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested in our assay had only marginal effects on insulin at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations, according to "Insulin secretion by bioactive anthocyanins and anthocyanidins present in fruits" by Jayaprakasam B, Vareed SK, Olson LK, Nair MG.(10)

11. Etc.

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1 comment:

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