Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), including catechins, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly catechin in green tea.
1. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)
In the investigation of the investigated possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) activity of EGCg and its mechanisms of action in the viral life cycle. EGCg, found that EGCg had a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells were significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCg greater than 1 μM, and protease kinetics were suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 μM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was enhanced by liposome modification of EGCg, according to "Inhibitory effects of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)" by Koushi Yamaguchi, Mitsuo Honda,Hajime Ikigai,Yukihiko Hara, Tadakatsu Shimamura(1)
2. Breast cancer
In the investigation of the effect of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against the initiation, progression, and invasion of carcinogenesis of MMP-9 in the human breast cancer cell line, found that EGCG treatment reduced the activity, protein, and mRNA expression ofMMP-9 and enhanced the expression of the tissue inhibitor of MMP 1 (TIMP-1). EGCG downregulated the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), reduced the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to fibronectin and vitronectin, and reduced the mRNA expression of the integrin receptors alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 and concluded that EGCG as a potential inhibitor of the expression and activity of MMP-9 by a process involving FAK/ERK and transcription factorsin MDA-MB-231, according to "Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates gelatinase-B (MMP-9) by involvement of FAK/ERK/NFkappaB and AP-1 in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231" by Sen T, Dutta A, Chatterjee A.(2)
3. Anti inflammatory effects
In the investigation of investigate the effect of EGCG on the expression of fibrogenic factors and whether EGCG attenuates the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury, found that Treatment with EGCG significantly reduced liver injury, oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. EGCG also significantly reduced the formation of collagen in the liver, the expression of alpha-SMA and all of the assayed pro-fibrogenic markers except TIMP-2 and MMP-9. EGCG significantly attenuated the severity of CCl(4)-induced liver injury and the progression of liver fibrosis. The protective effect of EGCG may in part be a consequence of the reduction in oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory response, according to "Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces liver inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice" by Tipoe GL, Leung TM, Liong EC, Lau TY, Fung ML, Nanji AA.(3)
4. Cardiovascular disease
In the examination of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular protection of green tea polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), found that The protective effect of EGCG is due to its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and the production of nitric oxide (NO) radicals by inhibiting the expression of iNOS. EGCG also ameliorates the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, reduces the activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and the subsequent formation of peroxynitrite with NO and reactive oxygen species. Thus, EGCG effectively mitigates cellular damage by lowering the inflammatory reaction and reducing the lipid peroxidation and NO generated radicals leading to the oxidative stress. Green tea is proposed to be a dietary supplement in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in which oxidative stress and proinflammation are the principal causes, according to "Green tea polyphenols as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for cardiovascular protection' by Tipoe GL, Leung TM, Hung MW, Fung ML.(4)
5. Sjogren’s syndrome (SS)
In the evuation of the Protection of glandular acinar cells from autoimmune-induced damage to Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) patients, found that EGCG is able to protect the NOD mouse submandibular glands from autoimmune-induced inflammation, and reduces serum autoantibody levels. Abnormal proliferation, rather than apoptosis, appears to be a characteristic of the NOD mouse gland that is normalized by EGCG, according to "