Thursday, December 1, 2011

Phytochemicals - 12 Health Benefits of Delphinidin

Delphinidin is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in bilberry, blueberry, eggplant, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Colon cancer
In the testing whether anthocyanidins exerted cytotoxicity in primary (Caco-2) and metastatic (LoVo and LoVo/ADR) colorectal cancer cell lines, found that Both cyanidin and delphinidin, though neither pelargonidin nor malvidin, were cytotoxic in metastatic cells only. The cell line most sensitive to anthocyanidins was the drug-resistant LoVo/ADR. There, cellular ROS accumulation, inhibition of glutathione reductase, and depletion of glutathione could be observed, according to "Oxidative stress-based cytotoxicity of delphinidin and cyanidin in colon cancer cells" by Cvorovic J, Tramer F, Granzotto M, Candussio L, Decorti G, Passamonti S.(1)

2. Antifibrotic activity
In the investigation of the hepatoprotective effects of anthocyanidin delphinidin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis in mice, found that delphinidin has successfully attenuated oxidative stress, increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 and metallothionein I/II expression and restored hepatic architecture. Furthermore, the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1 has been withdrawn by delphinidin. Concomitantly, the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin indicated returning of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) into inactive state. Our results suggest the therapeutic effects of delphinidin in CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation, according to "Antifibrotic activity of anthocyanidin delphinidin in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice" by Domitrović R, Jakovac H.(2)

3. Angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE)
In the calssification of the isolated constituents which areresponsible of the ACE activity of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, found that the anthocyanins delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (1) and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (2) were isolated by bioassay-guided purification. These compounds showed IC(50) values (84.5 and 68.4 microg/mL, respectively), which are similar to those obtained by related flavonoid glycosides. Kinetic determinations suggested that these compounds inhibit the enzyme activity by competing with the substrate for the active site, according to "Inhibition of angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) activity by the anthocyanins delphinidin- and cyanidin-3-O-sambubiosides from Hibiscus sabdariffa" by Ojeda D, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Herrera-Arellano A, Tortoriello J, Alvarez L.(3)

4. Breast cancer
In the investigation of in vitro biological effects of delphinidin on established breast cancer cell lines of varying molecular subtypes in comparison to non-transformed breast epithelial cells, found that single agent delphinidin exhibits growth inhibitory activity in breast cancer cells of various molecular subtypes, but raise concerns regarding potential drug antagonism when used in combination with existing targeted therapies in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer., according to "Delphinidin Inhibits HER2 and Erk1/2 Signaling and Suppresses Growth of HER2-Overexpressing and Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines" by Ozbay T, Nahta R.(4)

5. Antioxidants
In the determination of Antioxidant activity-guided fractionation based on three in vitro antioxidant assays (Folin-Ciocalteu, TEAC, and leucomethylene blue assays) was used to identify major antioxidants in blue wheat (UC66049 Triticum aestivum L.), found that after consecutive extractions with solvents of various polarities and multiple chromatographic fractionations, several potent antioxidants were identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside), tryptophan, and a novel phenolic trisaccharide (β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside) were the most active water-extractable constituents, according to "Antioxidant Activity-Guided Fractionation of Blue Wheat (UC66049 Triticum aestivum L.)" by Tyl CE, Bunzel M.(5)

6. Skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis
indicated that the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans, according to "Polyphenols: Skin Photoprotection and Inhibition of Photocarcinogenesis" by Afaq F, Katiyar SK.(6)

7. Cytoprotective actions
In the evaluation of the potential mechanisms responsible for the cytoprotective actions of three common anthocyanins, namely cyanidin- delphinidin- and pelargonidin-3-glucoside, in dicated thet Beyond their antioxidant properties, all these flavonoids, possessing either catecholic or monophenolic structures, were able to counteract peroxynitrite-induced apoptotic effects in endothelial cells through the inhibition of several crucial signaling cascades. Actually, pre-incubation of cells with 25 μM anthocyanins prevented them from peroxynitrite-mediated apoptosis, which was evaluated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases-9 and-3 activation, the increase in cytoplasmatic Bax levels and the inactivation of the PI3 K/Akt pathway, according to "Dietary anthocyanins protect endothelial cells against peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and Bax nuclear translocation: an in vitro approach" by Paixão J, Dinis TC, Almeida LM.(7)

8. Diuretic effect
In the evaluation of the diuretic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract on in vivo and in situ models, found that The yield of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extraction was 28.3% and the chemical standardization from 1g of extract was: 56.5mg delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside, 20.8mg/g cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside, 3.2mg/g quercetin, 2.1mg/g rutin and 2.7mg/g chlorogenic acid. The diuretic and natriuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract showed a dose-dependent behavior. The pharmacological constants of natriuretic effect was ED50=86mg/kg and Emax=0.9mEq/100g/5h. In the model of kidney in situ was observed that renal filtration increased 48% with the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and an additive effect when was perfuse with furosemide, according to "Pharmacological characterization of the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) extract" by Alarcón-Alonso J, Zamilpa A, Aguilar FA, Herrera-Ruiz M, Tortoriello J, Jimenez-Ferrer E(8)

9. Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Cultured Endothelial Cells
In the demonstration of oLDL increased the generation of intracellular NADPH-dependent superoxide and impaired redox status in cultured porcine aortic EC (PAEC), found that treatment with oLDL significantly increased the abundances of NADPH oxidase (NOX)2, NOX4 and p22phox in PAEC. OLDL reduced cell viability and the protein content of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, but increased the content of caspase 3 in PAEC. Co-treatment with D3G prevented oLDL-induced increases in intracellular superoxide, the protein content of NOX2, NOX4, p22phox or caspase 3, inhibited the impairment of redox statues or cell viability, and prevented the attenuation of mitochondrial enzyme activities, the reductions of Bcl-2, ND1 or cytochrome b contents in PAEC, according to "Influence of Delphinidin-3-Glucoside on Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein- Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Cultured Endothelial Cells" by Xie X, Zhao R, Shen GX.(9)

10. Anti inflammatory effects
In the identification of a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1), found that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis, according to "Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-κB acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells" by Seong AR, Yoo JY, Choi K, Lee MH, Lee YH, Lee J, Jun W, Kim S, Yoon HG.(10)

11. Anti cancers
In the discussion of numerous in vitro and animal model data suggest that flavonoids modulate important cellular and molecular mechanisms related to carcinogenesis, indicated that Epidemiological studies confirmed that, among many flavonoids, apigenin, epigallocatechin gallate, delphinidin and genistein appear to be beneficial compounds in various stages of carcinogenesis, according to "Anticancer properties of flavonoids: roles in various stages of carcinogenesis" by Clere N, Faure S, Martinez MC, Andriantsitohaina R.(11)

12. Periodontitis
In the investigation of the ability of a blackcurrant extract and its major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside) in the inhibition of the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), neutrophil elastase and periodontopathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) proteinases, showed that a blackcurrant extract and its major anthocyanins were able to inhibit the activity of host- and bacteria-derived proteinases. This suggests that such natural compounds may represent promising agents for use in adjunctive treatments for periodontitis, according to "Inhibition of host- and bacteria-derived proteinases by natural anthocyanins" by Santos J, La VD, Bergeron C, Grenier D.(12)

13. Etc.

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1 comment:

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