Thursday, December 1, 2011

Phytochemicals - 11 Health Benefits of Cyanidin

Cyanidin is an anthocyanins (flavonals), in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in red apple and pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Colon cancer
In the testing whether anthocyanidins exerted cytotoxicity in primary (Caco-2) and metastatic (LoVo and LoVo/ADR) colorectal cancer cell lines, found that Both cyanidin and delphinidin, though neither pelargonidin nor malvidin, were cytotoxic in metastatic cells only. The cell line most sensitive to anthocyanidins was the drug-resistant LoVo/ADR. There, cellular ROS accumulation, inhibition of glutathione reductase, and depletion of glutathione could be observed, according to "Oxidative stress-based cytotoxicity of delphinidin and cyanidin in colon cancer cells" by Cvorovic J, Tramer F, Granzotto M, Candussio L, Decorti G, Passamonti S.(1)

2. Angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE)
In the calssification of the isolated constituents which areresponsible of the ACE activity of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, found that the anthocyanins delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (1) and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (2) were isolated by bioassay-guided purification. These compounds showed IC(50) values (84.5 and 68.4 microg/mL, respectively), which are similar to those obtained by related flavonoid glycosides. Kinetic determinations suggested that these compounds inhibit the enzyme activity by competing with the substrate for the active site, according to "Inhibition of angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) activity by the anthocyanins delphinidin- and cyanidin-3-O-sambubiosides from Hibiscus sabdariffa" by Ojeda D, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, Herrera-Arellano A, Tortoriello J, Alvarez L.(2)

3. Neuroprotective effects
In the demostration of whether cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (Cy-3G) can inhibit Abeta(25-35) spontaneous aggregation into oligomers and their neurotoxicity in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, found that the pre- and co-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Cy-3G reduced the neuronal death, in terms of apoptosis and necrosis, elicited by Abeta(25-35) oligomers. Cy-3G also shows the interesting ability to prevent the early events leading to neuronal death such as the Abeta(25-35) oligomer binding to plasma membrane and the subsequent membrane integrity loss. according to "Neuroprotective effects of cyanidin 3-O-glucopyranoside on amyloid beta (25-35) oligomer-induced toxicity" by Tarozzi A, Morroni F, Merlicco A, Bolondi C, Teti G, Falconi M, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P.(3)

4. Antioxidants
In the verification of the chemical properties included composition of anthocyanins and other polyphenols, antioxidant activity and profiles of antioxidants by HPLC post-column derivatization or TLC of Polish cultivars of blue-berried honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L.), wild and bog bilberr, found that The antioxidant activity of different blue-berried honeysuckle cultivars was similar to that of wild growing bilberries (range from 170 to 417 μmol TE/g dm in ABTS and from 93-166 μmol TE/g dm in DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests). The major anthocyanin in the blue-berried honeysuckle was cyanidin-3-glucoside that constituted 84-92% of the total anthocyanins. The TLC and HPLC post-column antioxidant profiles indicated that anthocyanins are the major antioxidants in all berries studied, according to "Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Polish Blue-Berried Honeysuckle Genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC Post-Column Derivatization with ABTS or FC, and TLC with DPPH Visualization" by Kusznierewicz B, Piekarska A, Mrugalska B, Konieczka P, Namiesnik J, Bartoszek A (4)

5. Antimicrobial activity
In the evaluation of the fruit of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle; Caprifoliaceae) and its phenolic fraction for nutrients and micronutrients, found that the phenolic fraction displayed Folin-Ciocalteu reagent reducing (335 +/- 15 microg of gallic acid equivalent/mg) and DPPH and superoxide scavenging activity (IC50 12.1 +/- 0.1 and 115.5 +/- 6.4 microg/mL) and inhibited rat liver microsome peroxidation (IC50 160 +/- 20 microg/mL). The freeze-dried fruit and its phenolic fraction reduced the biofilm formation and adhesion to the artificial surface of Candida parapsilosis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans, according to "Constituents and antimicrobial properties of blue honeysuckle: a novel source for phenolic antioxidants" by Palíková I, Heinrich J, Bednár P, Marhol P, Kren V, Cvak L, Valentová K, Růzicka F, Holá V, Kolár M, Simánek V, Ulrichová J.(5)

6. Fatty liver disease
In the investigation of cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside (Cy-3-g), a typical anthocyanin pigment and its effects on AMPK activation and fatty acid metabolism in human HepG2 hepatocytes,
found that Cy-3-g regulates hepatic lipid homeostasis via an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation by anthocyanin may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, according to "Cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside regulates fatty acid metabolism via an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway in human HepG2 cells" by
Guo H, Liu G, Zhong R, Wang Y, Wang D, Xia M.(6)

7. Short-term Spatial Recognition Memory
In the evaluation of the efficacy of chronic cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) on alleviation of learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats as a result of the observed antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of C3G, found that the alternation score of the diabetic rats was lower than that of control (p < 0.01) and C3G-treated diabetic rats showed a higher alternation score as compared to diabetic group (p < 0.05). Diabetic rats also developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p < 0.01) and C3G treatment of diabetic rats did not produce any significant improvement. Meanwhile, increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in diabetic rats was significantly reduced following C3G treatment (p < 0.05), according to "Chronic Cyanidin-3-glucoside Administration Improves Short-term Spatial Recognition Memory but not Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats" by Nasri S, Roghani M, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Balvardi M, Rabani T.(7)

8. Diabetes prevention and management
In the investigation of the protective effects of C3G-rich bayberry fruit extract (CRBFE) against pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress-induced injury as well as its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mic, found that Pretreatment of β cells with CRBFE (containing 0.5 μmol/L C3G) prevented cell death, increased cellular viability, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cell necrosis induced by 800 or 1,200 μmol/L H(2)O(2). CRBFE dose-dependently up-regulated pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 gene expression, contributing to increased insulin-like growth factor II gene transcript levels and insulin protein in INS-1 cells. In addition, administration of CRBFE (150 μg of C3G/10 g of body weight twice per day) significantly reduced blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ICR mice and increased the glucose tolerance in an oral glucose tolerance test (P<.05), according to "Cyanidin-3-Glucoside-Rich Extract from Chinese Bayberry Fruit Protects Pancreatic β Cells and Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice" by
Sun CD, Zhang B, Zhang JK, Xu CJ, Wu YL, Li X, Chen KS.(8)

9. Diuretic effect
In the evaluation of the diuretic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract on in vivo and in situ models, found that The yield of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extraction was 28.3% and the chemical standardization from 1g of extract was: 56.5mg delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside, 20.8mg/g cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside, 3.2mg/g quercetin, 2.1mg/g rutin and 2.7mg/g chlorogenic acid. The diuretic and natriuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract showed a dose-dependent behavior. The pharmacological constants of natriuretic effect was ED50=86mg/kg and Emax=0.9mEq/100g/5h. In the model of kidney in situ was observed that renal filtration increased 48% with the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and an additive effect when was perfuse with furosemide, according to "Pharmacological characterization of the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) extract" by Alarcón-Alonso J, Zamilpa A, Aguilar FA, Herrera-Ruiz M, Tortoriello J, Jimenez-Ferrer E(9)

10. Anti-inflammatory Effects
In the investigation of the cartilage-protecting and anti-inflammatory effects of a polyphenolic-enriched red raspberry extract (RRE; standardized to total polyphenol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents), found that On treatment with RRE (50 μg/mL), there was a decrease in the rate of degradation of both proteoglycan and type II collagen. In the in vivo antigen-induced arthritis rat model, animals were gavaged daily with RRE (at doses of 30 and 120 mg/kg, respectively) for 30 days after adjuvant injection (750 μg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension in squalene). At the higher dose, animals treated with RRE had a lower incidence and severity of arthritis compared to control animals, according to "Anti-inflammatory Effects of Polyphenolic-Enriched Red Raspberry Extract in an Antigen-Induced Arthritis Rat Model" by Jean-Gilles D, Li L, Ma H, Yuan T, Chichester CO, Seeram NP.(10)

11. Obesity
In the demonstration of Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g)-rich foods have been reported to inhibit the onset of obesity, found that Cy-3-g improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice. The underlying mechanism is found to be partly related to the activation of LPL in plasma and skeletal muscle, and inhibition of LPL in adipose tissue following the activation of pAMPK, according to "Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice by regulating lipoprotein lipase activity" by Wei X, Wang D, Yang Y, Xia M, Li D, Li G, Zhu Y, Xiao Y, Ling W.(11)

12. Etc.

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1 comment:

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