Thursday, December 1, 2011

Phytochemicals in Foods - 8 Health Benefits of Flavanonols

Flavanonols (with two "o"s aka 3-hydroxyflavanone or 2,3-dihydroflavonol) are a class of flavonoids that use the 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-2-phenylchromen-4-one (IUPAC name) backbone(a), found in Japanese Raisin Tree, the wood of Pinus sibirica, Prunus domestica, brazilian green propolis, Black mulberry, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidant capacity
In the determination of the antioxidant of the polyphenolic constituents in some fruits, using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay, found that cutite showed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by jambolão, araçá, and muruci and antioxidant turned out to be primarily good sources of hydrolyzable tannins and/or flavonols, according to "Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region"by Gordon A, Jungfer E, da Silva BA, Maia JG, Marx F.(1)

2. Antibacterial and antiandrogen
In the demonstration of sixteen flavanones, three flavanonols, and four pterocarpans were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Sophora flavescens, found that twelve of these were new compounds, including eight prenylflavanones (1-8), one prenylflavanonol (9) and three novel pterocarpane derivatives (10-12) have exhibited significant antibacterial activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, S. epidermidis, and Propionibacterium acnes. They also exhibited antiandrogen activities, according to 'Antibacterial and antiandrogen flavonoids from Sophora flavescens" by Kuroyanagi M, Arakawa T, Hirayama Y, Hayashi T.(2)

3. Anti viral effects
In testing several flavonoids effects on Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase activity and studies of four groups of flavonoids, namely flavones, flavanones, flavonols, and flavanonols, found that flavonols and flavanonols were very active in this regard while flavones and flavanones displayed very low activity, according to "Inhibitory effects of flavonoids on Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase activity" by Chu SC, Hsieh YS, Lin JY.(3)

4. Hepatic and intestinal microsomes
In the investigation of fifteen flavonoids for their effects on the activity of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase in rat hepatic and intestinal microsomes, found that Polyhydroxylated flavonoids with a C2-C3 double bond (flavones and flavonols) were more effective inhibitors of the enzyme in both hepatic and intestinal microsomes than were the reduced homologues (flavanonols, flavanones and flavan-3-ols). In contrast, flavones lacking hydroxyl substituents (e.g. 5,6-benzoflavone, 7,8-benzoflavone and flavone) increased ethoxycoumarin deethylase activity in liver microsomes although they had an inhibitory effect in intestinal microsomes, according to "Comparison of the effects of various flavonoids on ethoxycoumarin deethylase activity of rat intestinal and hepatic microsomes" by Vernet A, Siess MH.(4)

5. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake
In the assessment of the effects of different classes of flavonoids on insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H]glucose uptake by mouse MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells differentiated into mature adipose cells, found that the flavones, apigenin and luteolin, the flavonols, kaempferol, quercetin and fisetin, an isoflavone, genistein, a flavanonol, silybin, and the flavanols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavins, significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, according to "Inhibitory mechanisms of flavonoids on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in MC3T3-G2/PA6 adipose cells" by Nomura M, Takahashi T, Nagata N, Tsutsumi K, Kobayashi S, Akiba T, Yokogawa K, Moritani S, Miyamoto K.(5)

6. Anti cancers
In the investigation of Flavonoids and their protective effects against cancer development through several biological mechanisms, found that intake of individual flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) was assessed and found that The multivariate RRs of total cancer across increasing quintiles of total quantified flavonoid intake were 1.00, 1.00, 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97 (P for trend = 0.72). For site-specific cancers, the multivariate RRs in the highest quintile of total quantified flavonoid intake compared with the lowest quintile were 1.03 for breast cancer, 1.01 for colorectal cancer, 1.03 for lung cancer, 1.15 for endometrial cancer, and 1.09 for ovarian cancer (all P > 0.05), according to "Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women" by Wang L, Lee IM, Zhang SM, Blumberg JB, Buring JE, Sesso HD.(6)

7. Colon caner
In the observation of quercetin enhancing the activity of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl peptidase in Caco-2 colon cancer cells, found that flavonols can have pro-oxidant effects, but our data suggested that this action was not the sole determinant of growth inhibitory or differentiating effects on Caco-2 cells. Our data indicated that effects of quercetin on colon cancer cell lines can be greatly affected by glycoside modification, according to "Inhibition of growth and induction of alkaline phosphatase in colon cancer cells by flavonols and flavonol glycosides" by Lea MA, Ibeh C, Deutsch JK, Hamid I, desBordes C.(7)

8. Anti inflammatory effects
In the examination in a double-blind intervention study conducted with two groups of non-smoking, un-treated sarcoidosis patients, matched for age and gender. One group was given 4x500 mg quercetin (n = 12) orally within 24 h, the other one placebo (n = 6). Plasma malondialdehyde levels were used as marker of oxidative damage, plasma ratios of TNF╬▒/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-10 as pro-inflammatory markers, found that Sarcoidosis patients might benefit from the use of antioxidants, such as quercetin in the group of Flavonols, to reduce the occurring oxidative stress as well as inflammation. The effects of long-term use of antioxidant supplementation in sarcoidosis, using e.g. quercetin, on improvement of lung function remain to be investigated, according to "Quercetin reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis" by Boots AW, Drent M, de Boer VC, Bast A, Haenen GR.(8)

Sources
(a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihydroflavonol
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21662239
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10654410
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1378087
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3491024
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18591783
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158208
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20944146
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21324570

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