is Phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belonging to the group of Betalains, found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.
1. Antioxidant effects
In the investogation of the betacyanin pattern of Djulis (Chenopodium fromosanum), a native cereal plant in Taiwan and determination of characteristics of the pigment, including pH and thermal stability for their relation to antioxidant activities, found that among them, betanin and isobetanin totally accounted for more than 70% of FRAP reducing power or DPPH scavenging capacity and were a major source of the antioxidant capacities. Our findings of this pigment confirmed that Djulis can be used as a novel source of betanin antioxidants and may provide a basis for its sustainable utilization in the food industry, according to 'Thermal and pH stability of betacyanin pigment of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) in Taiwan and their relation to antioxidant activity" by Tsai PJ, Sheu CH, Wu PH, Sun YF.(1)
2. Myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid
In the evaluation of Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the most powerful oxidant produced by human neutrophils and contribution to the damage caused by these inflammatory cells, produced from H2O2 and chloride by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), found that at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. Formation of ferric (native) MPO from compound II occurs with a second-order rate constant of (1.1+/-0.1) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) (betanin) and (2.9+/-0.1) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) (indicaxanthin), respectively. In addition, both betalains can effectively scavenge hypochlorous acid with determined rates of (1.8+/-0.2) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) (betanin) and (7.7+/-0.1) x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) (indicaxanthin) at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C., according to "Mechanism of interaction of betanin and indicaxanthin with human myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid" by Allegra M, Furtmüller PG, Jantschko W, Zederbauer M, Tesoriere L, Livrea MA, Obinger C.(2)